Our publications

We believe in sharing our expertise and experience in resilience.

 

Below is a list of papers, reports, book chapters, theses, and other articles we have published exploring a range of research areas to help build our knowledge base of resilience. If a paper is not available below, please contact us for a copy.
2017    |   2016   |   2015  |   2014   |   2013   |   2012 |   2011  |   2010  | 2009-

2017

Economic and social reconnaissance: Kaikōura Earthquake 2016
Joanne R. Stevenson, Julia Becker, Nicholas Cradock-Henry, Sarb Johal, David Johnston, Caroline Orchiston and Erica Seville. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering 50 (2), 346-355.
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Abstract

This paper provides a near-term reconnaissance of the economic and social impacts of the November 14th, 2016 Kaikōura earthquakes and tsunami. The effect of this event on the national economy is relatively minimal. The main impacts at the national scale include short-term falls in tax revenues from the affected regions and the Government’s NZ$1 billion spending increase for reconstruction activities. Disruptions at the regional and industry-level are far more significant. Approximately 11 per cent of office space in the nation’s capital of Wellington was closed in the week following the event and cordons were erected around several city blocks due to safety concerns. Damage to transport infrastructure is having the most significant economic impact, both in terms of the direct cost of repair and the indirect impacts on businesses whose supply chains have been disrupted. The Kaikōura District’s two largest industries, tourism and primary production, lost important infrastructure and essential functions were hampered by transport disruptions. In the tourism industry, ongoing safety concerns and reduced amenities for tourists will reduce trade in the coming season. Primary production businesses face increased transportation and land remediation costs and the closure of fisheries while affected shellfish habitats recover. Communities in the districts most affected by the Kaikōura earthquakes experienced the loss of critical utility services, the loss of homes, and temporary isolation. The Kaikōura earthquake has starkly highlighted the vulnerability of key infrastructure and transportation routes to natural hazards. It is also a timely reminder of the need for New Zealand to be prepared and to continue efforts to build resilience.

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Insurance as a Double-Edged Sword: Quantitative Evidence from the 2011 Christchurch Earthquake

Porntida Poontirakul, Charlotte Brown, Erica Seville, John Vargo. Ilan Noy
Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice (2017). doi.org/10.1057/s41288-017-0067-y

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Abstract

We examine the role of business interruption (BI) insurance in business recovery following the Christchurch earthquake in 2011. First, we ask whether BI insurance increases the likelihood of business survival in the immediate (3–6 months) aftermath of a disaster. We find positive but statistically insignificant evidence that those firms that had incurred damage, but were covered by BI insurance, had higher likelihood of survival post-quake compared with those firms that did not have any insurance. For the medium-term (2–3 years) survival of firms, our results show a more explicit role for insurance. Firms with BI insurance experience increased productivity and improved performance following a catastrophe. Furthermore, we find that those organisations that receive prompt and full payments of their claims have a better recovery than those that had protracted or inadequate claims payments, but this difference between the two groups is not statistically significant. We find no statistically significant evidence that the latter group (inadequate payment) did any better than those organisations that had damage but no insurance coverage. In general, our analysis indicates the importance not only of adequate insurance coverage, but also of an insurance system that delivers prompt claim payments.

Measuring the organizational resilience of critical infrastructure providers: A New Zealand case study

Charlotte Brown, Erica Seville, John Vargo. 
International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection (2017).  doi: 10.1016/j.ijcip.2017.05.002.

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Abstract

Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure services. This dependence is not only on the technology used in infrastructures, but also on the organizations that manage the infrastructures. Initiatives that assess infrastructure resilience often concentrate on strengthening the physical infrastructure through robustness and redundancy. Few studies recognize the important role of critical infrastructure providers. This study presents a method for assessing the organizational resilience of critical infrastructure providers. The method is demonstrated using data from a group of critical infrastructure providers in New Zealand. The application of the Benchmark Resilience Tool developed by Resilient Organisations reveals that the surveyed organizations are strong in effective partnerships, but are weak in breaking silos and in conducting stress testing plans. The results also indicate that senior managers have much more positive views of the resilience of their organizations compared with other staff members.

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Challenges and Opportunities for Economic Evaluation of Disaster Risk Decisions

Nicola Smith, Charlotte Brown, Garry McDonald, et al. (2017).
Economics of Disasters and Climate Change, 1(1), 111-120.  DOI 10.1007/s41885-017-0007-0

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Abstract

Decision-makers today are required to assess disaster risk management options in increasingly complex and uncertain environments. Disaster risk management typically involves significant investment to mitigate low probability or highly uncertain events. We argue that under these circumstances existing economic evaluation toolkits do not adequately support decision-making. Our paper outlines the key economic evaluation tools used in decision-making and, in turn, advances a research agenda for future development and application of these approaches. Priority challenges to be addressed include resilience thinking, multi-capital assessment, valuing the future, accounting for distributional equity, social appetite for risk, and deep uncertainty. We also recommend a strong focus on capacity and capability building to improve the risk literacy of decision-makers.

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Kaikoura Earthquake Social Science Research Workshop Report

Report prepared by Tracy Hatton, Bob Kipp, Charlotte Brown, Erica Seville. QuakeCoRE publication number 0177. May 2017.

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Introduction

Following any disaster event there is a desire by the social science research community to both inform recovery efforts and learn from the event. However, social science researchers may also be conscious of the need to keep their distance from communities and governance bodies who are under immense pressure to deal with immediate recovery needs. There is also a focusing effect of disaster, where there may be a greater likelihood of collaboration between scientists and policy makers, but also a chance that research may be duplicative due to escalating research effort (Beaven, Wilson, Johnston, Johnston, & Smith, 2016). When New Zealand was impacted by the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, a group of New Zealand-based researchers decided to gather social scientists and practitioners for a workshop to ascertain both the immediate and ongoing research needs and identify applicable lessons learned from past events. The Kaikoura Earthquake Social Science Research Workshop was held on the 24th of February 2017 in Wellington (NZ) and provided a setting to explore and inspire collaborative and coordinated post-disaster research.

This report serves two purposes. First, we summarise the workshop process and lessons learned about research collaboration, coordination, and impact following major disruptive events. Second, we present the research and research coordination priorities for the Kaikoura earthquake and tsunami, that were identified during the workshop.

 

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Supporting robust decision making on seismic resilience investments: development and trial application of a Decision Support Tool

Report prepared by Bob Kipp, Tracy Hatton, Erica Seville. May 2017. Resilient Organisations Report 2017/02.

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Introduction

The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence caused significant damage to the central business district of Christchurch and the nearby suburbs, leading to billions of dollars in damage to buildings and infrastructure and significant psycho-social impacts on the community (Potter, Becker, Johnston, & Rossiter, 2015). For several decades prior to this event, New Zealand had experienced a relatively calm seismic period. Where attention was paid to earthquake resilience, this was primarily focused on the Wellington region and on South Island rural areas expected to be heavily impacted by any Alpine Fault rupture. The Canterbury earthquakes were a reminder that questions around how to reduce the impact of seismic events are relevant to much of the country.

This report outlines the development and use of a prototype decision support tool (DST) developed to guide choices about where to invest time, effort, and resources to maximise improvements to seismic resilience. A decision support tool is a helpful device to indicate strengths, trade-offs, and co-benefits of different types of projects in environments where resources are limited and there is significant uncertainty about risk. The DST is intended to be a usable and robust tool that can aid decision making from problem formulation to identifying a range of suitable actions. The prototype DST is user-focused with an emphasis on engagement and participation.

The design of the DST derives from multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), deep uncertainty, decision making for long temporal horizons, and multiple futures scenario modelling, each of which are necessary considerations for low-probability/high-impact events such as major earthquakes. More commonly applied decision support methods, such as cost-benefit analysis, tend to be inadequate in these conditions (Bonzanigo & Kalra, 2014). The combination of multi-criteria decision analysis with techniques designed for navigating complex, uncertain, and perhaps relatively distant futures enables a process of holistic decision making beyond financial costs and benefits.

Seismic resilience refers to a system’s capacity to reduce the impact of earthquakes through mitigation measures and preparedness (Reduce), and increase the capacity of systems to recover quickly from disruptions (Recover) and thrive in the aftermath of disruption (Thrive) (QuakeCoRE, 2016). There are a number of pathways to enhance a system’s ability to reduce, recover, and thrive, and as many alternative pathways that may be more or less effective across multiple criteria. It is up to the decision maker to determine which pathways are optimised to achieve their goals of enhanced resilience.

The DST generates resilience profiles across a portfolio of project pathways. The profiles guide participants through analyses and reflections on the outcomes of their preferences. The DST can be used to generate a deeper understanding of decision makers’ preferences and desired outcomes across a set of pathways, and to determine which pathways align with their preferences.

In this report, we explore the conceptual foundations of the decision support tool, explain how it was created, its main components, and the understanding gained from implementing the DST as a prototype in a workshop format. Finally, we look at future uses, variations and further developments

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Resilience & Data in New Zealand: The Data Integration and Visualisation En Masse (Dive) Platform 2016 Summary

Report prepared by Joanne R. Stevenson, John Vargo, Chris Thompson, & Lucy-Jane Walsh.
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2017/01, April 2017.

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Summary

In 2016, the NZ Centre for Earthquake Resilience (QuakeCoRE) and the Resilience to Nature’s Challenges (RNC) – National Science Challenge, funded a small team of researchers from Resilient Organisations Ltd. in collaboration with UC CEISMIC (the Canterbury Earthquake Digital Archive) to investigate how to best enable teams of researchers to address complex social problems that will make New Zealand more resilient. The focus of this programme was to identify the types of data QuakeCoRE and RNC research teams would be using, how they planned to analyse and share that data, and how data management practices could enhance the impact of these research programmes.

Between March and November 2016, the team initiated a consultation process involving a series of workshops, surveys, interviews, and software prototype design and testing.

The outcomes of this consultation process resulted in several key outcomes:

1.  The identification and classification of data types that researchers will be using.

2.  The identification of critical data needs for researchers, including:

    1. Systems for knowing about ongoing research (before publication).
    2. Enhanced searchability of data across institutions.
    3. Systems that make sharing research data safe, easy, and desirable.
    4. Establishing standards and guidance for transdisciplinary data management in a way that facilitates data integration, analysis, and visualisation.
    5. Enhancing access to public, proprietary, and sensitive data sources.
    6. Streamlining and clarifying data sharing agreements for datasets that have significant reuse value or to which researchers will add value.
    7. The ability to track data reuse.

The consultation process also involved:

3.  Evaluating pre-existing systems that can meet some of the immediate needs of resilience researchers in this space including DesignSafe, the New Zealand Geotechnical Database, and EERI Clearinghouse System.

4.  Fostering relationships between key data providing organisations and researchers.

5.  Identifying human and institutional factors that inhibit the success of such boundary pushing, transdisciplinary, and cross-institutional research programmes.

Two final outcomes moved the consultation process into the design phase for a system that can begin to meet the needs of resilience researchers and practitioners:

6.  The development of several software use cases to guide the development of future data sharing systems.

7.  The creation of a working prototype data federation portal system, which we are calling the Data Integration and Visualisation En Masse (DIVE) Platform.

The consultation process made it clear there are systems that can meet some of the needs of those working to improve resilience in New Zealand. There are, however, still significant unmet needs that will hinder the progress of truly trans-disciplinary and transformative research.

Outcomes would be enhanced by a system that is problem-focused, rather than divided by funding or disciplinary boundaries. Such a problem-focused system will enhance the visibility of the work going on to improve the resilience of New Zealand. It will be a place where communities of researchers, decision makers, data holders, private industry, and citizen scientists can view, upload, and download data. Such a system should facilitate the creative collision of secondary and primary data, local narratives, real-time hazard monitoring, Mātauranga Māori knowledge, and multi-media information.

We propose the continued development of DIVE into an interactive online space for researchers and practitioners to organise and communicate information relevant to their ongoing research and information gathered from disaster events as they unfoldCapturing this data in a federation portal that is curated, properly archived, and strategically shared will facilitate future research, aid response and recovery actions and decision making, and may become a resilience building tool as broader communities are able to contribute data on the hazards they are experiencing or the trends they are seeing in their communities.

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Effects of a major disaster on skills shortages in the construction industry: Lessons learned from New Zealand

Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 24 Iss: 1, pp.2 - 20

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Abstract
Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the effects of a major disaster on the management of human resources in the construction sector. It sets out to identify the construction skills challenges and the factors that affected skills availability following the 2010/2011 earthquakes in Christchurch. It is hoped that this study will provide insights for on-going reconstruction and future disaster response with respect to the problem of skills shortages.

Design/methodology/approach

A triangulation method was adopted. The quantitative method, namely, a questionnaire survey, was employed to provide a baseline description. Field observations and interviews were used as a follow-up to ascertain issues and potential shortages over time. Three focus groups in the form of research workshops were convened to gain further insight into the feedback and to investigate the validity and applicability of the research findings.

Findings

The earthquakes in Christchurch had compounded the pre-existing skills shortages in the country due to heightened demand from reconstruction. Skills shortages primarily existed in seismic assessment and design for land and structures, certain trades, project management and site supervision. The limited technical capability available nationally, shortage of temporary accommodation to house additional workers, time needed for trainees to become skilled workers, lack of information about reconstruction workloads and lack of operational capacity within construction organisations, were critical constraints to the resourcing of disaster recovery projects.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings contribute to the debate on skills issues in construction. The study provides evidence that contributes to an improved understanding of the industry’s skills vulnerability and emerging issues that would likely exist after a major disaster in a resource-limited country such as New Zealand.

Practical implications

From this research, decision makers and construction organisations can gain a clear direction for improving the construction capacity and capability for on-going reconstruction. Factors that affected the post-earthquake skills availability can be considered by decision makers and construction organisations in their workforce planning for future disaster events. The recommendations will assist them in addressing skills shortages for on-going reconstruction.

Originality/value

Although the study is country-specific, the findings show the nature and scale of skills challenges the construction industry is likely to face following a major disaster, and the potential issues that may compound skills shortages. It provides lessons for other disaster-prone countries where the resource pool is small and a large number of additional workers are needed to undertake reconstruction

2016

Resilient Employees in Resilient Organizations: Flourishing Beyond Adversity

Joana Kuntz, Katharina Näswall, Sanna Malinen
Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 9(2), 456-462. doi:10.1017/iop.2016.39

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Abstract

Britt, Shen, Sinclair, Grossman, and Klieger (2016) offer compelling arguments for the need to consider resilience trajectories and to identify the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors accountable for unique trajectories. We welcome the call for more focused research efforts toward uncovering the role of resilience in organizations and concur with Britt et al. that there is a need for a clearer characterization of resilience among employees, the correlates of resilience, and the way that resilience can be facilitated. Our objective here is to build on the main thrust of Britt et al.’s focal article by outlining a novel perspective on employee resilience, which we believe will constitute an important contribution to the organizational resilience literature.

Lessons from disaster: Creating a business continuity plan that really works

Tracy Hatton, Eleanor Grimshaw, John Vargo, Erica Seville 2016. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning . Autumn/Fall2016, Vol. 10 Issue 1, p84-92.

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Abstract

Business Continuity Planning (BCP) is well established as a key plank in an organisation's risk management process. But how effective is BCP when disaster strikes? This paper examines the experiences of organisations following the 2010-11 Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes. The study finds that BCP was helpful for all organisations interviewed but more attention is needed on the management of societal and personal impacts; development of employee resilience, identification of effective crisis leaders; right-sizing plans and planning to seize opportunities post-disaster.

Employee resilience and leadership styles: The moderating role of proactive personality and optimism

Quyen Nguyen,Joana R.C. Kuntz, Katharina Näswall, Sanna Malinen.
New Zealand Journal of Psychology Vol. 45, No. 2, August 2016

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Abstract

Resilience has merited growing interest in psychology and managementresearch, given its potential to drive important organisational outcomes.Yet, there is limited understanding of the individual and contextual factorsthat promote resilient behaviours in organisations. This study exploredrelationships between dispositional variables (proactive personality andoptimism), leadership styles (empowering and contingent reward leadership)and employee resilience. Data were collected from a sample of 269 white-collar workers in New Zealand through an online survey. Results show that empowering leadership, proactive personality and optimism were significantlyrelated to resilient behaviours. Moreover, optimism interacted with contingent reward leadership to predict employee resilience. The findings underscore theimportance of measuring employee resilience as a contextualised, behavioural capability, and the need to investigate its nomological network considering the interplay of organisational enablers and dispositional variables

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Economic and Business Recovery

Joanne Stevenson, Ilan Noy, Garry McDonald, Erica Seville, and John Vargo
Natural Hazard Science: Oxford Research Encyclopedias.  Online Publication Date: Jul 2016.  DOI:10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.19.

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Abstract

The economics of disasters is a relatively new and emerging branch of economics.  Advances made in analysis, including modeling the spatial economic impacts of disasters,is increasing our ability to project disaster outcomes and explore how to reduce their negative impacts. This work is supported by a growing body of case studies on theorganizational and economic impacts of disasters, such as Chang’s in-depth analysis of the Port of Kobe’s decline following the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, and the evolving studies of the workforce trends during the ongoing recovery of Christchurch, New Zealand, following a series of earthquakes in 2010 and 2011.

The typical view of post-disaster economies depicts a pattern of destruction, renewal, and improvement. Evidence shows, however, that this pattern does not occur in all cases. The degree of economic disruption and the time it takes for different economies to recover varies significantly depending on characteristics such as literacy rates, institutional competency, per capita income, and government spending.

If the impacts are large relative to the national economy, a disaster can negatively affect the country or sub-national region’s fiscal position. Similarly, disasters may have significant implications for the national trade balance. If, for example, productive capacity is reduced by disaster damage, exports decrease, the trade balance may weaken, and localized inflation may increase.

Studies of individual, household, industry, and business responses to disasters (i.e., microeconomic analyses) cover a broad range of topics relevant to the choices actors make and their interactions with markets. Both household consumption and labor markets face expansion and contraction in areas affected by disasters, with increased consumption and employment often happening in reconstruction related industries.

Additionally, the ability of businesses to absorb, respond, and recover in the face of disasters varies widely. Characteristics such as size, number of locations, and pre-disaster financial health are positively correlated with successful business recovery. Businesses can minimize productivity disruptions and recapture lost productivity by conserving scarce inputs, utilizing inventories, and rescheduling production.

Assessing the progress of economic recovery and predicting future outcomes are important and complex challenges. Researchers use various methodologies to evaluate the effects of natural disasters at different scales of the economy. Surveys,microeconomic models, econometric models, input-output models, and computable general equilibrium models each offer different insights into the effect of disasters on economies. The study of disaster economics still faces issues with consistency, comprehensiveness, and comparability. Yet, as the science continues to advance there is a growing cross-disciplinary accumulation of knowledge with real implications for policy and the private sector.

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Criticality of infrastructures for organisations

Sonia Giovinazzi, Charlotte Brown, Erica Seville, Joanne Stevenson, Tracy Hatton, John Vargo. 2016
International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 12 (4), 331-363

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Abstract

Critical infrastructure systems provide for the circulation of people, goods, services and information upon which health, safety, comfort and economic activity of a society depend. In this study, we analyse data from 541 organisations affected by the 2010-2011 Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquake to understand how disruption of critical infrastructure services translates into disruption for businesses and other organisations affected by the loss of infrastructure services. The paper proposes metrics for assessing the relevance and criticality of infrastructures for organisations. In this context, relevance refers to organisations' perceived reliance on infrastructure services and criticality refers to the impact that infrastructure service outage might have on organisations, as a function of the infrastructure relevance for the same organisations and of the duration of infrastructure service outage. The metrics and procedures proposed in this paper provide a much-needed contribution towards enhancing understanding of the private sector's vulnerability to infrastructure disruption. The study findings can be used to qualitatively assess the vulnerability of industry sectors to infrastructure disruption, and can support the estimation of potential impacts induced by infrastructure service outages, at organisation and industry sector level. This can inform and foster public and private sector investments to enhance infrastructure resilience.

Efficacy of insurance for organisational disaster recovery: case study of the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes

Charlotte Brown, Erica Seville, and John Vargo.
Disasters (2016). doi:10.1111/disa.12201

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Abstract

Insurance is widely acknowledged to be an important component of an organisation's disaster preparedness and resilience. Yet, little analysis exists of how well current commercial insurance policies and practices support organisational recovery in the wake of a major disaster. This exploratory qualitative research, supported by some quantitative survey data, evaluated the efficacy of commercial insurance following the sequence of earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010 and 2011. The study found that, generally, the commercial insurance sector performed adequately, given the complexity of the events. However, there are a number of ways in which insurers could improve their operations to increase the efficacy of commercial insurance cover and to assist organisational recovery following a disaster. The most notable of these are: (i) better wording of policies; (ii) the availability of sector-specific policies; (iii) the enhancement of claims assessment systems; and (iv) risk-based policy pricing to incentivise risk reduction measures.

Disaster Risk Management Decision-making: Review: Full cost accounting of disaster risk management decisions

Report prepared by Nicky Smith, Charlotte Brown, Wendy Saunders 
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2016/04, March 2016.

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Summary

Natural disasters bear a heavy cost for New Zealand both in terms of financial losses and societal and environmental disruption. A number of studies have illustrated that the benefits from disaster risk reduction and mitigation can potentially far exceed the financial costs involved. But effective Disaster Risk Management (DRM) decision-making requires methodologies and frameworks that provide a good ‘evidence base’ and comprehensively assess the costs and benefits of DRM on our societal well-being.

Cost benefit analysis and multi-criteria analysis are among the most popular tools or frameworks used by governments to assist decision-making across a broad range of policy contexts. The evaluation of disaster risk management options is, however, characterised by some important challenges that can call into question established decision making processes, routines and assumptions. Perhaps of most important, disaster risk management options tend to be characterised by a dichotomy between costs and benefits. While the costs of implementing risk management tend to be relatively certain, immediate and easily quantifiable in financial terms, benefits tend to be subject to high levels of uncertainty, experienced over long time horizons, and difficult to quantify.

This literature review is part of a government funded (Natural Hazards Research Platform) research project ‘Full Cost Accounting of Disaster Risk Management: Risk, meanings and metrics with uncertainty’.  The literature review aims to provide a concise summary of background information, both for researchers and stakeholders. The review includes a summary of the disaster risk management context in New Zealand, traditional economic decision analysis tools, common challenges with existing tools, existing frameworks for disaster risk decision-making and common costs and benefits included in DRM studies.

This project seeks to develop a prototype decision making framework fit for DRM. Within the project the prototype framework will also be applied to a specific DRM case study. 

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Capacity and capability development of Canterbury subcontracting businesses: Features, motivating factors and obstacles

Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2016/03, February 2016.

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Executive Summary

This report provides an understanding of the nature of Canterbury subcontracting businesses operating in the space of earthquake reconstruction in Christchurch. It offers an in-depth look at the factors that influence the development of their capacity and capability to withstand the impact of volatile economic cycles, including the 2008 global financial crisis and the subsequent 2010/11 Canterbury earthquakes.

There have been significant changes to the business models of the 13 subcontracting businesses studied since the earthquakes. These changes can be seen in the ways the case study subcontractors have adapted to cope with the changing demands that the rebuild posed. Apart from the magnitude of reconstruction works and new developments that directly affect the capacity of subcontracting businesses in Canterbury, case studies found that subcontractors’ capacity and capability to meet the demand varies and is influenced by the:

  • subcontractors’ own unique characteristics, which are often shaped by
  • changing circumstances in a dynamic and uncertain recovery process; and
  • internal factors in relation to the company’s goal and employees’ needs
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Trends in resourcing and employment practice of Canterbury construction organisations

Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon
Resilient  Organisations Research Report 2016/02, February 2016.

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Executive Summary

Five years on since the first major earthquake struck the Canterbury region, the reconstruction is well advanced. Christchurch is a city in transition. This report considers trends in resourcing and employment practice of Canterbury construction organisations in response to the projected market changes (2015-2016). The report draws on the interviews with 18 personnel from 16 construction organisations and recovery agencies in October 2015. It provides a summary of perceived changes in the construction market in Canterbury, evidence of what steps construction businesses have been taking, how they have prepared for likely changes in the reconstruction sector, as well as the perceived alignment of public policies with the industry response.

The key findings are as follows:

  • There is a consensus among interviewed construction businesses that the Canterbury rebuild work, particularly the residential rebuild work and SCIRT’s horizontal infrastructure repair work, plateaued in 2014, started falling in 2015 and is expected to wrap up by end of 2016.
  • In anticipating the potential downward pressure in the residential and infrastructure rebuild sectors, subcontractors of different tiers had re-structured their businesses. Meanwhile building companies, especially small and new start-up businesses, have or are considering ‘downsizing’ staff.
  • There are still reported shortages in certain types of specialist trades, such as driveway contractors, scaffolders and tilers.
  • Improving efficiency is a key focus for most interviewed construction organisations, such as improving staff performance; reviewing business structures, improving supply chains and increasing their customer base.
  • Reflecting on current public policies, interviewed organisations commended current fixed term policy responses to alleviate labour force impacts of the disaster, including the dedicated one-stop Canterbury ‘Skills and Employment Hub’ and the New Zealand Apprenticeships, which they felt had been effective in assisting construction businesses to recover, retain staff and continue to operate in the rebuild sectors.
  • As the rebuild work proceeds at a slower pace, it is likely that further challenges will emerge in retaining the core skills and competences that have been developed during the rebuild in the region. The availability and affordability of housing, and career prospects in Christchurch, the retention strategies adopted by construction businesses, and coordination across the relevant agencies and sectors will have a strong influence on labour supply.
  • Industry structure-related factors, such as high turnover, youth employment, lack of knowledge transfer within the subcontractor and sector levels, and a lack of investment in training and skills development at a business level, are still prominent, and having an impact on workforce development strategies within construction organisations.
  • Certainty issues for workers in newly established organisations post-earthquake such as CERA, Fletcher EQR and SCIRT have emerged, including the transition of staff members with rebuild experience, continued demand for certain roles in the rebuild sectors, knowledge transfer and documentation for long-term reconstruction. All these issues, together with lessons learned from the set-up of those organisations and their institutional and functional arrangements, provide implications for the development of capacity and capability in managing large-scale urban rebuild and will influence the development of an effective workforce strategy in Canterbury for the long term.
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Businesses and the Canterbury earthquakes: how do their experiences translate to other contexts?

Tracy Hatton, Erica Seville, Charlotte Brown, Joanne Stevenson
March 2016, ERI Research Report 2016/01.

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Executive Summary

This report describes the results of 14 case studies carried out with organisations in Christchurch and Auckland to further inform and refine the Business Behaviours Module of MERIT. The Business Behaviours Module has been developed based on extensive statistical analysis of the responses of 541 Canterbury organisations to a 2013 survey on their experiences following the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquakes. We needed to test the applicability of the Business Behaviours Module to other types of disruption and to other urban locations. To do this we undertook a series of paired case studies, in two study regions, Canterbury and Auckland. Seven organisations that completed the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure (ERI) Canterbury business behaviours survey were initially recruited. Selection was based on their reported levels of disruption and to get representation from a variety of sectors, size and type of organisations. For each Canterbury case study a corresponding ‘pair’ organisation in Auckland was selected, with similar demographic features. A semi structured interview was carried out with the organisations exploring their responses to a number of actual and hypothetical infrastructure disruption scenarios.

Overall, the case studies revealed few geographic differences in how organisations in Christchurch and Auckland respond to disruption. Sector had far greater significance in predicting likely response to a disruption than location. With only a few exceptions, once an initial understanding of the business had been developed, the interviewer could have answered 80% of the remaining questions accurately. This supports the idea that the Business Behaviours Module developed from the Christchurch earthquake data is transferable to other urban contexts. However, the survey and case study data are based on large urban environments and further research is needed to ensure these findings are applicable within smaller communities with a greater rural interface.

The case studies revealed areas where the Business Behaviours Module needs to change. For example, there is a need to adjust the relationships for very short-term infrastructure disruptions; in these cases the business behaviours model predicts better performance than reality in the short term, followed by a slow recovery back to full operability. In reality, shortterm disruptions (e.g., a 36 hour electricity outage) creates a more pronounced impact on organisations during the period of disruption, but they are then able to recover back to full operability almost immediately after infrastructure services resume. To account for this we will adjust the Business Behaviours Module to differentiate between short-term and longerterm disruptions, with a step function included for very-short term disruptions. Another change needed is to adjust the operability curves so that once an organisation has achieved close to full operability, then full operability is assumed. Otherwise the asymptotic nature of the operability curves means that an organisation approaches, but never returns to full operability.

Through the case studies we also identified a number of subtleties around how organisations responded to the Christchurch business behaviours survey. We will now use these insights to stress test the Business Behaviours Module relationships. For example, we would like to recheck the model for the influence of relocation and temporary closure on reported levels of disruption due to water, sewage and electricity outages. We will also review the weightings of disruption levels in the calculation of experienced disruption, in particular the weighting of ‘slight’. We also need to review the water infrastructure relationships for sectors not critically v ERI Research Report 2016/01 dependent on water, such as transportation, postal and warehousing, professional services, wholesale trade, information, media and telecommunications, and financial and insurance services.

Taking our case study organisations through a variety of different scenarios also revealed interesting differences in how the effects of different types of infrastructure disruption are ‘felt’ by businesses. For example, disruption to port services is experienced predominantly as an increased cost of doing business, rather than as an inhibitor to an organisation’s ability to operate. As such, a better place to model the effects of port disruptions may be in the Economic Module within MERIT rather than the Business Behaviours Module. The same may apply for road based freight transport, but the overall effect of road disruption (which goes beyond just freight movements to include the inability of staff and customers to travel) needs further exploration.

The case studies also revealed a number of potential business behaviour ‘levers’ to include within MERIT. For example, our case studies emphasised the importance of the Earthquake Support Subsidy to the Canterbury recovery. The provision (or not) of government support for businesses during recovery will be an important lever to include in future versions of MERIT. There is also potential to include an on/off variable for availability of mitigation measures for particular types of infrastructure: that is if mitigation is in place, there would be no disruption to operability.

The case studies support the case for including the potential for sustained productivity improvements following disaster events within MERIT, but there is a need to better understand the extent (percent) and nature (production recipe, restructuring, staff working hours) of these productivity gains before they can be incorporated.

The next step in refining the Business Behaviours Module is to carry out the further analysis suggested in this report and implement the recommended changes. Further testing and validation will then take place when a testing version of MERIT, incorporating the Business Behaviours Module, is available in early 2016.

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2015

Collaborative Approaches to the Post-Disaster Recovery of Organisations

Tracy Hatton
University of Canterbury, PhD thesis, 2015.

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Abstract

Organisations play a vital role in assisting communities to recover from disasters. They are the key providers of goods and services needed in both response and recovery efforts. They provide the employment which both anchors people to place and supports the taxation base to allow for necessary recovery spending. Finally, organisations are an integral part of much day to day functioning contributing immensely to people’s sense of ‘normality’ and psychological wellbeing. Yet, despite their overall importance in the recovery process, there are significant gaps in our existing knowledge with regard to how organisations respond and recover following disaster.

This research fills one part of this gap by examining collaboration as an adaptive strategy enacted by organisations in the Canterbury region of New Zealand, which was heavily impacted by a series of major earthquakes, occurring in 2010 and 2011. Collaboration has been extensively investigated in a variety of settings and from numerous disciplinary perspectives. However, there are few studies that investigate the role of collaborative approaches to support post-disaster business recovery. This study investigates the type of collaborations that have occurred and how they evolved as organisations reacted to the resource and environmental change caused by the disaster.

Using data collected through semi-structured interviews, survey and document analysis, a rich and detailed picture of the recovery journey is created for 26 Canterbury organisations including 14 collaborators, six non-traders, five continued traders and one new business. Collaborations included two or more individual businesses collaborating along with two multi-party, place based projects. Comparative analysis of the organisations’ experiences enabled the assessment of decisions, processes and outcomes of collaboration, as well as insight into the overall process of business recovery.
This research adopted a primarily inductive, qualitative approach, drawing from both grounded theory and case study methodologies in order to generate theory from this rich and contextually situated data. Important findings include the importance of creating an enabling context which allows organisations to lead their own recovery, the creation of a framework for effective post-disaster collaboration and the importance of considering both economic and other outcomes. Collaboration is found to be an effective strategy enabling resumption of trade at a time when there seemed few other options available. While solving this need, many collaborators have discovered significant and unexpected benefits not just in terms of long term strategy but also with regard to wellbeing. Economic outcomes were less clear-cut. However, with approximately 70% of the Central Business District demolished and rebuilding only gaining momentum in late 2014, many organisations are still in a transition stage moving towards a new ‘normal’.

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Developing the Business Behaviours Module within MERIT

Charlotte Brown, Erica Seville, Joanne Stevenson, Sonia Giovinazzi, John Vargo
August 2015. ERI Research Report 2015/02.

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Executive Summary

This report is an output of the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure (ERI) research project, funded by the New Zealand government to develop a new spatial decision support system for infrastructure disruption in New Zealand. The system, referred to as ‘Measuring the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure Tool’ (MERIT), will be used to support government and infrastructure provider decision-making by enhancing their understanding of the economic impacts of infrastructure outages.

MERIT consists of a suite of interlinked modules incorporating spatial features of a region and its infrastructure networks, economic activity, business behaviours, interdependencies, and policy options. These modules can be shocked using infrastructure disruption scenarios (e.g., volcanic eruption, significant single infrastructure outage) to understand the economic impacts of such disruptions.

This report describes the proposed method for integrating business behaviour into the larger MERIT model. The business behaviours module for MERIT has been developed using empirical data gathered following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes. The Canterbury earthquake business behaviours data has provided an effective platform for developing quantitative and qualitative business behaviour models.

The ERI Business Behaviours team has developed a business behaviours causal framework to describe the effect of disruptions on an organisation’s operability or their ability to meet demand. The framework links external infrastructure and non-infrastructure impacts to the degree of disruption experienced by individual organisations. In turn, the framework shows that an organisation’s operability is affected by that experienced disruption; along with other organisational factors that can improve operability levels in the face of disruption, including organisational demographics, pre-event mitigation, post-event adaptation, and resilience. With this framework as a conceptual guide, linear regression modelling and other complementary statistical methods were used to assess the Canterbury earthquakes dataset. From these analyses we determined the relative strengths of the variable relationships within the framework and subsequently developed an operability function for input into the full MERIT suite. There were four main steps in determining the operability function:

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A Systems Approach to Managing Human Resources in Disaster Recovery Projects

Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon
ANDROID Residential Doctoral School Proceeding, 5th International Conference on Building Resilience, Newcastle, Australia, 15-17th July 2015. The paper received the Emerald Best Conference Paper Award 2015.

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Abstract

Lack of construction resources and capacity has always presented difficult challenges to the construction industry following a major disaster. In the case of the Canterbury earthquakes that took place in 2010 and 2011 in Christchurch, New Zealand, a number of factors combined to influence the post-disaster recovery environments and increase the demands for better approaches to managing human resources for reconstruction projects. By using a systems approach, this study identified the dynamics that have changed construction companies’ resourcing behaviours in relation to the employment demand and supply in the Canterbury recovery. Research findings show that the limited technical capability available nationally, lack of motivation among new entrants, combined with high turnover rate, had accounted for socially produced skills shortages in Christchurch. This shortage was further compounded by factors such as the shortage of temporary accommodation, time lags of training and a lack of information about reconstruction workloads from the recovery agencies. The study suggests that the design of policy instruments in managing human resources in Christchurch should be informed by a detailed understanding of the dynamics that mediate between policy objectives and outcomes over time. A systems approach should be applied to increase the efficiencies in resource management in the continued reconstruction.

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Employee Resilience Scale (EmpRes) Measurement Properties

Katharina Näswall, Joana Kuntz , Morgana Hodliffe, Sanna Malinen
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2015/04, August 2015.

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Summary

Research suggests that individuals who are more resilient cope better with change. However, an employee-centric measure of resilience to enable the empirical investigation of resilience on the employee level has only recently been developed. The present report presents the revised version of the Employee Resilience (EmpRes) scale developed by Näswall, Kuntz, Hodliffe, and Malinen in 2013.

The purpose of this scale is for organisations to use the scale to monitor resilience levels in their staff, and identify areas contributing to the development of employee resilience. The scale can also be used by researchers examining links between employee resilience and other theoretically and practically relevant constructs.

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Skills Shortages in the Christchurch Subcontracting Sector

Imelda Saran Piri, Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson.
ANDROID Residential Doctoral School Proceeding, 5th International Conference on Building Resilience, Newcastle, Australia, 15-17th July 2015. The paper received the ANDROID Residential Doctoral School 2015 Best Paper Award.

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Abstract

In the aftermath of the Canterbury earthquake, the construction industry was confronted with intensified resource competition, a constrained pool of labour, unmet demand for accommodation and instabilities in workload outlook. Subcontracting is an integral part of the Christchurch reconstruction. Therefore, subcontractors’ capability and resource capacity are pivotal to the project success. Despite the subcontractors’ domination in the construction industry, there is a little exploration of their resourcing capacity in the post-disaster environment. This paper explores the subcontracting sector challenges in resourcing for the Christchurch reconstruction. Difficulty in matching skills to demand has heightened the importance of training and skills development within the subcontracting companies. The effort at attracting skilled employees to remain engaged was made through incentive programmes; however, employees’ departure is still evident. The inability at satisfying the workforce demand may result in a major interruption to the reconstruction time frame. This paper provides an understanding of the current resourcing challenges for the subcontracting organisations

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Investment in the Construction Sector to Reduce Disaster Risk Management

Suzanne Wilkinson, Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Zulkfli Sapeciay, and Resilient Organisations, New Zealand.
Input Paper to the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015

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Abstract

Construction organisations are often called upon to manage the post-disaster environment. In addition to having to recover their own business functionality, construction organisations must operate to assist with the post-disaster recovery and reconstruction such as providing the ph ysical resources, people, material supply, logistics expertise and rebuilding processes needed for recovery. Communities rely on services provided by construction organisations to enable them to recover from emergencies and crises. Pre-disaster construct ion company resilience impact s on the ability of construction companies to function post-disaster. The research discussed in this paper shows the role of construction companies in a disaster. This input paper for the 2015 Global Assessment Report advocate s for investment in pre-disaster risk reduction at a construction organization al level to improve post-disaster recovery outcomes. The paper presents key indicators of organisational resilience in the construction sector. Resilience indicators set a benchmark for enhancing business risk reduction measures so that organisations can survive a crisis. Organisations that invest in pre-disaster risk reduction are more likely to be able to recovery their business functionality quicker than those with no pre-disaster risk reduction investment. This paper uses the construction sector organisations as a case study of the impact of disaster risk reduction on business functioning after an event. In order to ensure that the disaster recovery and reconstruction programs are successfully implemented, it is necessary for construction organisations to be resilient and able to respond, and recover from an event. The construction sector need s to understa nd the critical role they have to play in both disaster risk reduction, and in recovery post-disaster. Developments in the understanding of the critical role of the construction sector post-disaster, and the solutions to improving construction sector resil ience can be incorporated into the industry sector risk reduction and resilience in the successor framework to the HFA.

The main questions guiding this research are:

  • What is the role of the construction sector post-disaster?
  • What are the challenges faced by construction organisations post-disaster ?
  • How can the construction sector improve its resilience ?
  • What changes are required to the HFA to improve construction sector resilience?
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Building Employee Resilience through Wellbeing in Organisations

Karen Tonkins
University of Canterbury, Masters Thesis, 2015.

 
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Abstract

An untested assumption is that ‘a resilient organisation comprises of resilient employees’. Under the guidance of the Employee Resilience Research Group, this research used quantitative surveys to investigate how resilience at an individual, employee and organisational level interact. Secondly, to investigate the role that the workplace plays in the resilience and wellbeing of its employees, participants took part in the Mental Health Foundation’s ‘Wellbeing Game’, a free online game in which players engage in some or all of the ‘Five Ways to Wellbeing’ (Give, Connect, Take Notice, Keep Learning, Be Active). These five actions have been scientifically shown to improve mental wellbeing.

The results showed that individual, employee and organisational resilience are indeed related. Not only that, our participants reported feeling more resilient at work than outside of the workplace. Following playing the Game, levels of Employee Resilience (not individual or organisational resilience) increased. As expected, participants also reported positive increases in mental wellbeing. These results indicate that resilience is contextual, employee resilience can be developed, and a resilient organisation is indeed comprised of resilient employees.

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Industry sector recovery following the Canterbury earthquakes

H. Kachali, Zac Whitman, Joanne Stevenson, Jon Vargo, Erica Seville and Tom Wilson
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Volume 12, June 2015, Pages 42–52 

 
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Abstract

The Canterbury sequence of earthquakes offers an opportunity to study the post-disaster recovery process of organisations and industry sectors. This study uses data collected via a survey of organisations affected by the 22 February 2011 earthquake in Canterbury, New Zealand. The industry sectors in the study are: construction for its role in the rebuild, information and communication technology which is a regional high-growth industry, trucking for logistics, critical infrastructurefast moving consumer goods (e.g. supermarkets) and hospitality to track recovery through non-discretionary and discretionary spend respectively. When compared to post-earthquake revenue changes, significant factors affecting organisations include customer issues, staff wellbeing and disruption to utilities. Also discussed is the differential effect these factors have on the industry sectors studied. This paper identifies the different factors that disrupted organisations in different sectors; explores the relative impact of these disruptions; and examines the differences in short- to medium-term recovery trends.

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Addressing Inter-Sectoral Linkages and Interdependencies: A study of the past disaster events

Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Erica Seville, Suzanne Wilkinson, Hlekiwe Kachali, Joanne Stevenson
Input Paper to the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015

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Abstract

In recent years, economic assets and income potential have seen a rapid increase in exposure to physical hazards. In higher - income countries economic assets and jobs are being created but the risk of losing economic assets and livelihoods from a disaster is increasing. Disasters often disrupt economic activities through the destruction of businesses, homes, communities and infrastructure. Both the disaster itself and the restructuring of economic activities that occurs post - event can fundamentally change the structure of an industry and its relationships with other sectors. The structure of an industry and its connections with other sectors 1 can be fundamentally changed due to the restructuring of economic activities as a consequence of the disaster itself or of the reconstruction ( APEC, 2013). The trans - boundary risks inherent in critical industrial sectors therefore have been identified as being major contributors to the vulnerabilities of economy. The UNISDR 2015 Global Assessment Report seeks to investigate how the economic and productive sectoral policies and plans incorporate the indicators of the Hyogo Framework for Action ( HFA ) in the management of disaster risk . The UNISDR aims to provide an evidence base to support the design of the successor arrangement of the HFA. This input paper for the 2015 Global Assessment Report aims to make the case for how public and private agencies can help protect the country’s most vulnerable economic activities and productive sectors to reduce the overall impacts of disasters. As part of this discussion, the paper also discusses the trans - boundary nature of risks between critical economic sectors. The paper further explores what drives economic resilience in order to help decision makers to come up with better strategies and practical tools for getting organisations through times of crisis. This paper aims to explore new methods, good practice, policies and regulations regarding how public and private sectors can work together to contribute to risk reduction in critical economic sectors. The research is based on case studies from Canterbury ( New Zealand ) , Queens land ( Australia ) and Tohoku ( Japan ) . The case studies, along with other case studies from Sichuan (China) and Southern Alberta (Canada), draw on Resilient Organisations’ research report prepared for the APEC Natural Disasters Workforce Project (2013) , as well as Resilient Organisations’ longitudinal studies in Canterbury following the 2010/11 earthquakes. This research will draw on evidence from the strategies to reduce risk and the vulnerability of economic activities to natural disasters implemented by government and business es in different countries. The case studies are complemented by a review of literature from the fields of organisational resilience, economic resilience, systems of industrial sectors, economics of natural disasters, social protection and workforce development. 1 In this paper, a group of organisations that operate in the same segment of the economy or share a similar business type are characterised as making up an industry sector.

The questions guiding this research are:

  • What are the different sector vulnerabilities to disasters across different countries? 
  • How do sectors differ in their approach to DRR?
  • How do the same sectors in different countries recovery from disasters?
  • How do the inter-dependencies between sectors affect economic recovery and business resilience?
  • What can be done to reduce sector vulnerability and improve business’ DRR activity or awareness?
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National Science Challenges: Resilience to Nature's Challenges Short-Term Project Working Paper, Delivery 1, Resilience Benchmarking & Monitoring Review

Joanne Stevenson, John Vargo, Vivienne Ivory, Chris Bowie & Suzanne Wilkinson
6/2015.

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Deliverable 1 Overview

New Zealand is at an exciting point in its trajectory towards becoming a leader and exemplar of disaster resilience. The Government, through the Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment (MBIE), is funding the National Science Challenges (NSC) through its partner GNS Science. The NSC funding format encourages cross-disciplinary and cross-institutional collaboration and strategic planning to enact transformative change through best-practice research.

The Resilience to Nature’s Challenges (RNC) – Kia manawaroa Ngā Ākina o Te Ao Tūroa - priority research area under the NSC umbrella aims to achieve, “transformative resilience, discovering and implementing new research-based solutions for our society, culture, infrastructure and governance to address factors that will enable New Zealand to thrive in the face of nature’s challenges,” (Jolly 2014).

An important part of the RNC research programme will be mapping and monitoring the trajectories of the various systems that contribute to New Zealand’s resilience. Prior to the launch of the RNC in July 2015, RNC researchers conducted a short-term project to provide a foundation for understanding how we can benchmark the resilience of New Zealand’s systems and monitor resilience progress.

This short-term project, The Resilience Benchmarking and Monitoring Review, is intended to provide an inclusive, up-to-date resource of theoretical and practical resilience frameworks and reviews of current resilience literature and relevant datasets. The deliverables produced as part of this short-term project will be used across the RNC-NSC to aid the usefulness, consistency and robustness of resilience benchmarking and monitoring. The deliverables will also aid the development of the workplan for RNC-NSC Toolbox 7: Resilience Trajectories.

This working paper provides a summary of the work undertaken as part of The Resilience Benchmarking and Monitoring Review. Section 1 addresses the definition of resilience as it pertains to disasters. Although a large number of articles grapple with the definition of resilience, the authors felt it was necessary to attempt to facilitate a common understanding across the RNC by providing a robust cross-disciplinary interpretation of the concept. Section 2 addresses conceptual questions raised by stakeholders during the short-term project expert consultation phase or questions that emerged from the literature review which will likely need to be addressed by the Resilience Trajectories Toolbox and other priority research areas in the future. Section 3 discusses operationalizing resilience to make practical changes for New Zealand communities. Section 4 outlines the multi-capital framework that underpins the holistic approach to resilience assessment in the RNC-NSC. Section 5 provides a brief review and critique of frameworks and assessment and monitoring tools that may inform the resilience research agenda over the next several years. Finally, Section 6 reflects on the conclusions of The Resilience Benchmarks and Monitoring Review and maps research plans and priorities emerging from this review.

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National Science Challenges: Resilience to Nature's Challenges Short-Term Project Deliverable 4: Multi-Capital Resilience Annotated Bibliography

Joanne Stevenson, Alan Kwok, Henrieta Hamilton Skurak, Alistair Davies, Tracy Hatton, Masoud Sajoudi, Mark Codling & Chris Bowie
6/2015

 
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Overview

This annotated bibliography provides an initial survey of resilience literature. The authors have assembled thorough critical summaries of approximately 160 papers. The literature assembled for this annotated bibliography is a systematic sample of peer-reviewed and gray literature within specific sub-sets of the resilience literature: highly cited papers covering general reflections on disaster resilience and policy, economic resilience, infrastructure resilience, organisational and institutional resilience, social and community resilience, human and psychological resilience, and social-ecological systems.

The coverage is biased toward highly cited and influential literature in these fields and research perspectives and empirical research developed in New Zealand. The majority of the resources (over 80%) were published between 2000 and 2015, reflecting some bias in the accumulation of resources but also reflecting the proliferation of the resilience concepts across academia and beyond in the last decade and a half.

The bibliography is the collective effort of doctoral students and emerging researchers working across a number of fields in New Zealand. While this resource is not comprehensive, it has and should continue to facilitate trans-disciplinary thinking and discussion and serve as a literature primer for holistic approaches to disaster resilience research and practice.

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Post-Disaster Challenges and Opportunities: Lessons from the 2011 Christchurch Earthquake and Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

Frederico Ferreira Pedroso, Joel Teo, Erica Seville, Sonia Giovanazzi, John Vargo
Input Paper to the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015.

 
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Abstract

Both the 2011 Christchurch Earthquake and the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami can help practitioners and researchers to further understand the role of information sharing and decision-making in future large-scale post-disaster situations. While both Japan and New Zealand have relatively advanced disaster risk reduction procedures, both cases contain numerous examples where information exchange issues arose, and both challenges and opportunities to learn from the events were encountered. This situation is not unique as reports from past GAR meetings continue to identify challenges around disseminating key information to stakeholders during emergencies and for coordinating post-event reviews. Real events such as the ones cited allow the assessment of current response and recovery practices as well as the identification of gaps in processes. Such studies are important to ensure on-going development and improvements in the Disaster Risk Management field. This paper will help inform policy changes that can be considered in the post 2015 framework for disaster risk reduction.

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Employee Learning in a Transient Alliance: Exploring Learning Enablers, Facilitators, and Obstacles

Daniela F. Rubio Rius
University of Canterbury, Masters Thesis, 2015.

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Abstract

Aim of the study. The aim of this study is to explore the main contributors and obstacles to employee learning in the context of an alliance using the framework of a complex embedded multiple - case study. The two participant alliance partner organisations (APOs) are natural competitors that are joined to respond to urgent community needs of the city of Christchurch following the major earthquakes in September 2010 and February 2011. At the moment of the in-depth interviews, it had been about four years since those events occurred. There are continuous, unexpected circumstances that still require attention. However, the alliance has an expiry date, thus reinforcing the uncertain work environment.

Method. Employee learning is examined using a qualitative, inductive approach to data analysis. Ten participants were invited, five from each alliance partner organisation with the aim to increase validity of findings as a cross-case analysis was also performed, and current data were triangulated with archival data. Employees were not given a pre-defined definition of learning to allow for a more free flow of conversation while their own views were shared. Emerging themes were then compared to extant literature – mainly from the cognitive constructivist psychology literature, but also organisational learning research.

Conclusion. The main enablers found were participative, collaborative learning encouraged by leaders who embraced the alliance’s “learning organisational culture”. Employees generate innovations mostly in social interaction with others, while taking on responsibility for their learning by learning from mistakes. The main obstacle found is competition, as inhibitor of collaboratively sharing their knowledge out of fear of losing their competitiveness.

Limitations. Given time constraints, it was not possible to continue recruiting participants for this study. Therefore, an uneven number of participants – five from APO1 and 3 from APO2 did not allow for a proper cross - unit analysis, therefore undermining cross - validation efforts.

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Quantitative Analysis of Factors Influencing Post-Earthquake Decisions on Concrete Buildings in Christchurch, New Zealand

Ji Hyun Kim, The University of British Columbia, Master's thesis, 2015.

 
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Abstract

The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence resulted in unprecedented losses including 185 casualties, an estimated $NZ 40 billion cost of rebuild, and the demolition of 60% of reinforced concrete buildings in the Christchurch Central Business District (CBD). Intriguingly, demolition rate is unexpectedly high compared to the reported damages. This study thus sought to explore factors influencing the post-earthquake decisions on buildings (demolition or repair). Focusing the study on multi-storey reinforced concrete buildings in the Christchurch CBD, information on building characteristics, assessed post-earthquake damage, and post-earthquake decision (demolish or repair) for 223 buildings was collected. Data were collected in 2014 in collaboration with Christchurch City Council (CCC), Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA), GNS Science, and local engineers. Data were obtained on approximately 88% of the 3- storey and higher reinforced concrete buildings within the CBD, or approximately 34% of all reinforced concrete buildings in the CBD. The study of descriptive statistics and trends of the database confirms that a significant portion of repairable buildings were demolished. Logistic regression models were developed based on the collected empirical data. From the significance testing, the assessed damage, occupancy type, heritage status, number of floors, and construction year were identified as variables influencing the building-demolition decision. Their effects on the post-earthquake decisions were approximated, and the resulting likelihood of building demolition was estimated for buildings with different attributes. From personal interviews with 9 building owners and owner’s representatives, 9 building developers and investors, 5 insurance sector representatives, and 4 local engineers and government authority personnel, it was learned that the local context, such as insurance policy and changes in local legislation, also played a significant role in the decision-making process.

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Resourcing the Canterbury Rebuild: Emerging issues facing subcontracting businesses

Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon.
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2015/03, May 2015.

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Introduction

This study reports key emerging issues facing subcontracting businesses in late 2014. Following
previous resourcing case studies of construction organisations in Christchurch (Chang-Richards
et al., 2014)1
, this study concentrates on the subcontracting sector. This report is part of the
Resilient Organisations’ resourcing study of subcontracting businesses in Christchurch following
the 2010/11 earthquakes. The research findings with regard to the resourcing strategies adopted
by Canterbury rebuild subcontractors were reported in Resilient Organisations Research Report
2015/02 (Chang-Richards et al., 2015)2. The case studies, which include interviews from a range of subcontracting businesses, also provide insight into emerging issues facing subcontracting sector, which are presented in this report.

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Resilience and Recovery: Business Behaviour Following the Canterbury Earthquakes

E. Seville, J.R. Stevenson, J. Vargo, C. Brown, S. Giovinazzi.
NIST Workshop on the Economics of Community Disaster Resilience, 29-30 April 2015, Washington DC.

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Abstract

Within an economy, businesses, governments and community service providers are the actors-on-the-ground that experience the direct and indirect impacts of infrastructure failures. They are the actors whose responses, decisions, and adaptive behaviors collectively shape the path of economic recovery and patterns of growth and decline. This brief report presents key findings from a study conducted with 541public and private Canterbury regional organizations by Resilient Organizations as part of the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure (ERI) project in New Zealand. The study was conducted in the light of major disruptions in the aftermath of a complex earthquake sequence. The research presented here found how organizations mitigated those disruptions and recovered their productive capacity. Highlighted are the ways in which they adapted to facilitate continued or even improved functioning and discovered the impact of organizations resilience on ability to meet customer demand, productivity and cash-flow.

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Resourcing the Canterbury Rebuild: Case studies of construction subcontractors recruitment and retention strategies

Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon. 
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2015/02, April 2015

 
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Introduction

We live in an increasingly complex world dealing with a broad spectrum of crises arising from both natural
and man-made causes. Resilient organisations are those that are able to survive and thrive in this world
of uncertainty.

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Primer in Resiliency: Seven Principles for Managing the Unexpected

Erica Seville, Debbie Van Opstal, John Vargo.
Global Business and Organizational Excellence.  March/April 2015.  DOI: 10.1002/joe.21600.

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Abstract

For business organizations, the ability to manage volatility is a crucial strategic competency, one of the pillars of competitiveness. Contrary to conventional perception, resilience is not just about minimizing and managing the impact of natural disasters. It is about creating the agility needed to adapt to unexpected challenges—whatever they may be — and the capacity to seize opportunity from adversity. This analysis of seven principles of resiliency includes practical suggestions for implementing each
one, along with examples of companies that have managed to improve their operational effectiveness, even in time of crisis, by putting these precepts into practice.

(we are unable to post a copy of this article online, but if you would like a copy, please contact us)

2014

Disruption and Resilience: How Organisations coped with the Canterbury Earthquakes.

Erica Seville, Joanne Stevenson, Charlotte Brown, Sonia Giovinazzi, John Vargo.  December 2014.
ERI Research Report 2014/002.

 
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Introduction

Within an economy, businesses, governments and community service providers are the actors-on-the-ground that experience the direct and indirect impacts of infrastructure failures. They are the actors whose responses, decisions, and adaptive behaviours collectively shape the path of economic recovery and patterns of growth and decline. Examining the responses of public and private organisations to major disruptions provides important insights into how local and regional economies fare in the aftermath of these events. This report presents key findings from a study conducted by Resilient Organisations as part of the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure (ERI) project. The research presented here examines how organisations in Canterbury, New Zealand were impacted by a complex series of earthquakes; how they mitigated those disruptions and recovered their productive capacity; and the ways in which they adapted to facilitate continued and, in some cases, improved functioning.

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Knowledge management and tourism recovery (de)marketing: The Christchurch earthquakes 2010-2011.

Caroline Orchiston & J. Higham
Taylor and Francis Online (2014).

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Abstract

New Zealand has a history of deadly earthquakes, the most recent of which in Christchurch (2010–2011) has had major consequences for the tourism sector. Tourism destinations affected by major natural disasters face significant challenges during the response and recovery phases. Christchurch lost a large proportion of its lifelines infrastructure and accommodation capacity, and experienced an unprecedented drop in domestic and international visitor arrivals. The theoretical frameworks informing this paper come from the fields of tourism disaster planning, knowledge management and recovery marketing. They inform an empirical study that draws upon qualitative expert interviews with national and regional destination management organizations regarding their experience of the Christchurch earthquakes. The findings of this research highlight the critical importance of knowledge management and effective inter-agency collaboration and communication in the immediate disaster response, as well as during the development and implementation of (de)marketing strategies, in order to expedite medium- to long-term tourism recovery.

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Conceptualising Adaptive Resilience using Grounded Theory

V. Nilakant, B. Walker, K. van Heugten, R. Baird and H. de Vries.
New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations 39(1): 79-86 (2014)

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Abstract

We present the initial findings from a study of adaptive resilience of lifelines organisations providing essential infrastructure services, in Christchurch, New Zealand following the earthquakes of2010-2011.Qualitative empirical data was collected from 200 individuals in 11 organisations. Analysis using a grounded theory method identified four major factors that aid organisational response, recovery and renewal following major disruptive events. Our data suggest that quality of top and middle-level leadership, quality of external linkages, level of internal collaboration, ability to learn from experience, and staff well-being and engagement influence adaptive resilience. Our data also suggest that adaptive resilience is a process or capacity, not an outcome and that it is contextual. Post-disaster capacity/resources and post-disaster environment influence the nature of adaptive resilience.

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Regional and sub-sector impacts of Canterbury earthquake sequence for tourism businesses

 C. Orchiston,  E. Seville  and J. Vargo.
Australian Journal of Emergency Management, Vol 29, No. 4, October 2014.

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Abstract

The tourism industry suffered significant losses as a consequence of the Canterbury earthquake sequence. The sequence began in September 2010, followed by a significant aftershock in February 2011 that caused an unprecedented and sustained reduction in tourism arrivals to the city of Christchurch and the wider region. This paper reports empirical findings from an impact and recovery survey of Canterbury tourism operators one year after the earthquake sequence. Results illustrate the different impacts experienced across three tourism sub-sectors of activity/attraction, accommodation, and visitor transport. These were largely a consequence of location and degree of damage coupled with the drop in international visitor arrivals.

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Organisational Resilience after the Canterbury Earthquakes: A Contextual Approach.

Joanne R. Stevenson, University of Canterbury, PhD thesis, 2014.

 
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Abstract

Following a disaster, an organisation’s ability to recover is influenced by its internal
capacities, but also by the people, organisations, and places to which it is connected. Current approaches to organisational resilience tend to focus predominantly on an organisation’s internal capacities and do not adequately consider the place-based contexts and networks in which it is embedded. This thesis explores how organisations’ connections may both hinder and enable organisational resilience.
Organisations in the Canterbury region of New Zealand experienced significant and
repeated disruptions as a result of two major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks throughout 2010 and 2011. This thesis draws upon 32 case studies of organisations located in three severely damaged town centres in Canterbury to assess the influence that organisations’ place-based connections and relational networks had on their post-earthquake trajectories. The research has four objectives: 1) to examine the ways organisations connected to their local contexts both before and after the earthquakes, 2) to explore the characteristics of the formal and informal networks organisations used to aid their response and recovery, 3) to identify the ways organisations’ connections to their local contexts and support networks influenced their ability to recover following the earthquakes, and finally, 4) to develop approaches to assess resilience that consider these extra-organisational connections. The thesis contests the fiction that organisations recover and adapt independently from their contexts following disasters. Although organisations have a set of internal capacities that enable their post-disaster recovery, they are embedded within external structures that constrain and enable their adaptive options following a disaster. An approach which considers organisations’ contexts and networks as potential sources of organisational resilience has both conceptual and practical value. Refining our understanding of the influence of extra-organisational connections can improve our ability to explain variability in organisational outcomes following disasters and foster new ways to develop and manage organisational resilience.

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Rural Organisational Impacts, Responses, and Recoveries to Natural Disasters: Case studies from the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence and the 2010 Southland Snowstorm

Zach Whitman, University of Canterbury, PhD thesis 2014

 
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Abstract

Natural disasters are increasingly disruptive events that affect livelihoods, organisations, and economies worldwide. Research has identified the impacts and responses of organisations to different types of natural disasters, and have outlined factors, such as industry sector, that are important to organisational vulnerability and resilience. One of the most costly types of natural disasters in recent years has been earthquakes, and yet to date, the majority of studies have focussed on the effects of earthquakes in urban areas, while rural organisational impact studies have primarily focused on the effects of meteorological and climatic driven hazards. As a result, the likely impacts of an earthquake on rural organisations in a developed context is unconstrained in the literature. In countries like New Zealand, which have major earthquakes and agricultural sectors that are significant contributors to the economy, it is important to know what impacts an earthquake event would have on the rural industries, and how these impacts compare to that of a more commonly analysed, high-frequency event. In September of 2010, rural organisations in Canterbury experienced the 4 September 2010 Mw 7.1 ‘Darfield’ earthquake and the associated aftershocks, which came to be known as the Canterbury earthquake sequence. The earthquake sequence caused intense ground shaking, creating widespread critical service outages, structural and non-structural damage to built infrastructure, as well as ground surface damage from flooding, liquefaction and surface rupture. Concurrently on September 18 2010, rural organisations in Southland experienced an unseasonably late snowstorm and cold weather snap that brought prolonged sub-zero temperatures, high winds and freezing rain, damaging structures in the City of Invercargill and causing widespread livestock losses and production decreases across the region. This thesis documents the effects of the Canterbury earthquake sequence and Southland snowstorm on farming and rural non-farming organisations, utilizing comparable methodologies to analyse rural organisational impacts, responses and recovery strategies to natural disasters. From the results, a shortterm impact assessment methodology is developed for multiple disasters. Additionally, a regional asset repair cost estimation model is proposed for farming organisations following a major earthquake event, and the use of social capital in rural organisational recovery strategies following natural disasters is analysed.

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A Framework for Building Back Better During Post-Disaster Reconstruction and Recovery

Sandeeka Mannakkara, University of Auckland, PhD thesis 2014 

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Abstract

The increasing frequency of disaster events in recent times has led to a demand for improved post-disaster reconstruction and recovery efforts. The slogan ―Build Back Better‖ (BBB) denotes improving the physical, psycho-social and economic aspects of communities during reconstruction and recovery to induce greater resilience. This research project has been designed to understand what ―Building Back Better‖ entails; the key concepts that constitute BBB; and how they can be practically implemented. The research conducted for this thesis has led to the creation of a framework including the key aspects of recovery required to build back better. BBB was represented using four categories:
(1) Risk Reduction, (2) Community Recovery, (3) Implementation and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation. Risk Reduction was defined as measures put in place to reduce risks in the built environment through two ―BBB Principles‖: Principle 1 Improvement of Structural Designs and Principle 2 Land-Use Planning. Community Recovery referred to measures put in place to support socio-economic recovery of communities through: Principle 3 Social Recovery and
Principle 4 Economic Recovery. Implementation referred to systems put in place to implement Risk Reduction and Community Recovery effectively and efficiently through: Principle 5 Management of Stakeholders and Principle 6 Legislation and Regulation. Monitoring and Evaluation was defined as mechanisms put in place to monitor compliance with BBB-based initiatives and obtain lesson to improve future disaster management practices. A sequential mixed methods approach was used in this research project. The qualitative phase focused on two case studies: (1) The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Recovery in Sri Lanka and (2) The 2009 Victorian Bushfires Recovery in Australia. The first phase of research was used to develop ―BBB Propositions‖ for implementing initiatives under the defined BBB categories and Principles. The quantitative phase of the study involved conducting a survey to validate the BBB Propositions generated in the first phase using industry experts. The results of the survey exercise were used to identify critical BBB Propositions which are recommended as a guide to plan and implement future post-disaster reconstruction and recovery projects in order to build back better

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Bay of Plenty Lifelines Group Resilience Benchmark Report.

Report prepared by Charlotte Brown, Erica Seville, John Vargo. 
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2014/06, September 2014

 
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Executive summary

Resilience is important for any organisation, but where the organisation provides a critical lifeline service to the community, the importance of continuity of service is even more crucial. The Bay of Plenty Lifelines Group (BOPLG) is made up of utilities providing critical infrastructure to support the Bay of Plenty region. There has been considerable effort over many years within lifeline groups across New Zealand to improve the resilience of critical infrastructure assets and networks. Under the Civil Defence and Emergency Management Act 2002, each lifeline utility is required to restore services to the fullest possible extent, during and after an emergency. To enable this, utility authorities are also required to participate in emergency management planning. The BOPLG identified a gap, in that there has traditionally been less focus on the resilience of the organisations that own, operate and maintain that infrastructure.

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Organisational resilience following the Darfield earthquake of 2010

Zachary Whitman, Joanne Stevenson, Hlekiwe Kachali, Erica Seville, John Vargo, and Thomas Wilson (2014).

Disasters, 38: 148–177. doi: 10.1111/disa.12036

 
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Abstract

This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study on the resilience and recovery of organisations
following the Darfield earthquake in New Zealand on 4 September 2010. Sampling included organisations
proximal and distal to the fault trace, organisations located within central business districts, and organisations
from seven diverse industry sectors. The research captured information on the challenges to, the impacts on,
and the reflections of the organisations in the first months of recovery. Organisations in central business
districts and in the hospitality sector were most likely to close while organisations that had perishable stock
and livestock were more heavily reliant on critical services. Staff well-being, cash flow, and customer loss
were major concerns for organisations across all sectors. For all organisations, the most helpful factors in
mitigating the effects of the earthquake to be their relationship with staff, the design and type of buildings, and
critical service continuity or swift reinstatement of services.

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Workforce behaviour and business responses - Case studies of construction organisations.

Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon.
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2014/05

 
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Executive summary

This report is the fifth report in a series of Resilient Organisations reports on the changing employers’ behaviour in response to employment demand and supply for the Canterbury rebuild and wider recovery. The work aims to inform decision-making and provide an improved understanding of the ongoing resourcing issues for the reconstruction in Christchurch.

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Assisting Self-Managing Rebuilding Owners in New Zealand to Rebuild their Homes: Lessons for New Zealand from the 2009 Victoria Bush Fire Recovery.

Suzanne Wilkinson, Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon.
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2014/02

 
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Introduction

After a disaster, many people are faced with damage to their properties,
and a need to rebuild their homes. In Christchurch a significant number of
people will be rebuilding their homes or building new homes on recently
purchased land. There are many ways in which a person can approach a
building project including:
• employ a volume builder, architect, builder or project manager to
manage the whole building process (design through to completion) or
substantial parts of the project;
• decide to self-manage the building project stages whilst employing
different professionals for the different stages of the building;
• if they are particularly skilled, with the correct qualifications, such as
being a Licensed Building Practitioner, they could manage and build
the property themselves.
• choose to undertake the work themselves through applying for an
Owner-Builder exemption.
This bulletin focusses on those people who choose to self-manage the
building project stages whilst employing different professionals for the
different stages of the building. For this report, these people are termed
“self-managing rebuilding owners”. The bulletin draws on lessons from five
years of research tracking the rebuilding of Marysville and Kinglake in
Victoria following the bush-fires of February 2009.

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Engineering decisions: framework, process and concerns.

C. B. Brown and D. G. Elms.
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 2013; 30 (3-4):175-198 2014.

 
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Abstract

Decisions are central to engineering processes and hold them together. It is argued that better decisions will lead to better engineering. To achieve better decisions requires that they be understood in detail. A typical decision is broken down into its essential requirements and processes, thus displaying the components of its framework. The process leads to the identification of a number of concerns. The components are discussed and a set of issues where more work needs to be done is identified. There are significant implications for both engineering practice and engineering education.

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Provision of temporary accommodation for construction workers: Learnings from Queensland post Cyclone Larry.

Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon.
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2014/01, February 2014

 
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Executive summary

The Queensland Government in Australia provided temporary accommodation for construction
workers following Cyclone Larry, which struck the Innisfail region in March 2006. This
initiative aimed to address workers’ medium- to long-term accommodation needs to facilitate
recovery and repairs in the affected areas. The Department of Housing and Public Works took a
lead role for facilitation of this initiative. This report provides a summary of the temporary
accommodation model used after Cyclone Larry.
In total, the Department of Housing and Public Works facilitated approximately 400 beds for
temporary accommodation and over 30 community facilities across Queensland. A major
component in the success of this initiative was that it worked with existing operators to facilitate
an expansion of their facilities to meet accommodation demand. This improved occupancy rates
for operators, increased revenue and allowed those with available land to finance expansion
plans to meet demand as the workforce increases over time.
The provision of accommodation for both workers and displaced residents was considered by the
Queensland Government as being equally important. A core rationale for providing mediumterm
accommodation following disasters is that provision should be in response to a lack of
capacity in the community. The Queensland Government concluded that assistance with workers’
accommodation was necessary on the following basis:
 A lack of transitional accommodation for trade workers often forces tradespeople to rent
any houses available on the private market, consequently reducing availability for
residents.
 Trade worker’s ability to pay above-market rent to secure rental accommodation
exacerbates inflation in the housing market.
 The impact of tradespeople monopolising available accommodation has a negative
impact on tourism and primary production (in this case sugar cane and bananas) that
relies on itinerant labour.
 The need to minimise the impact of accommodation demands from construction workers
required for repairs on the overall labour and housing markets.

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Re-conceptualising “Building Back Better” to Improve PostDisaster Recovery

Sandeeka Mannakkara, Suzanne Wilkinson,

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, Vol. 7 Iss: 3.  (2014)

 
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Abstract

Statistics from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP, 2008) show an increase in the number of natural disasters over time attributing to growing populations, urban growth in risk-prone areas due to scarcity of land, and global warming. Along with increasing frequency, recent disasters show an increase in magnitude and resulting destruction (Red Cross, 2010). Despite the increasing number of disaster experiences, post-disaster activities remain inefficient and poorly managed and need to be improved according to Halvorson and Hamilton (2010), Lloyd-Jones (2006) and Sawyer et al. (2010). The slogan “Build Back Better” first emerged during the multi-national recovery effort following the Indian Ocean Tsunami (Clinton, 2006, Lyons, 2009), as the need to improve current reconstruction and recovery practices and generate safer communities emerged. The aim of this paper is to understand the origins and definition of the concept of Building Back Better (BBB) in post-disaster reconstruction and recovery in order to create a framework which would allow practical application of BBB concepts to improve post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. This paper discusses the importance of BBB practices for successful recovery of communities following disasters; examines existing guidelines which include recommendations for BBB; identifies key concepts critical to BBB; analyses these concepts; and reviews shortcomings in existing BBB guidelines. This information is utilized in this paper to develop an all-inclusive set of ‘BBB Principles’ which form part of a ‘BBB Framework’ that can be employed to guide post-disaster reconstruction and recovery practices in order to build back better.

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Organizational Networks and Recovery Following the Canterbury Earthquakes

J. R. Stevenson,  Y. Chang-Richards, D. Conradson, S. Wilkinson, J. Vargo, E. Seville, and D. Brunsdon,

Earthquake Spectra, Volume 30, No. 1, pages 555–575, February 2014. 

 
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Abstract

Following a disaster, the recovery of organizations is influenced by the flow
of resources and information through organizational networks. The 2010–2011
earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, had major direct and indirect impacts
on local organizations and the regional economy. This paper utilizes 47 organizational
case studies to assess the role of organizations’ networks in their
response and short-term recovery activities, and to explore the effects of networks
on regional reconstruction and related sectors. The results are organized around
four thematic analyses, focusing on organizations’ support network characteristics,
the types of support mobilized to aid recovery, network adaptations for new
post-quake demands, and the economic impacts of organizational networks in
reconstruction. The paper discusses how organizations managed and utilized networks
to reduce the impacts of the earthquakes and to adapt to altered post-quake
environments. These empirical observations of post-quake organizational behavior
can also inform regional economic impact and resilience modeling.

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Improving environmental management legislation to facilitate post-disaster reconstruction

James Olabode Bamidele Rotimi, Suzanne Wilkinson

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, Vol. 5 Issue  2014

 
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Abstract

The study explores improvements to environmental management legislation that will enable the
implementation of post disaster reconstruction activities after the built environment has been
affected by a natural disaster.

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Urban Disaster Recovery in Christchurch: The Central Business District Cordon and Other Critical Decisions.

Stephanie E. Chang, Josh E. Taylor, Kenneth J. Elwood, Erica Seville, Dave Brunsdon, and Mikaël Gartner (2014).

Earthquake Spectra. doi: 10.1193/022413EQS050M

 
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Abstract

The Canterbury earthquakes, which involved widespread damage in the February
2011 event and ongoing aftershocks near the Christchurch central business district
(CBD), presented decision-makers with many recovery challenges. This paper identifies
major government decisions, challenges, and lessons in the early recovery of
Christchurch based on 23 key-informant interviews conducted 15 months after the
February 2011 earthquake. It then focuses on one of the most important decisions –
maintaining the cordon around the heavily damaged CBD – and investigates its impacts.
The cordon displaced 50,000 central city jobs, raised questions about (and provided new
opportunities for) the long-term viability of downtown, influenced the number and
practice of building demolitions, and affected debris management; despite being
associated with substantial losses, the cordon was commonly viewed as necessary, and
provided some benefits in facilitating recovery. Management of the cordon poses
important lessons for planning for catastrophic urban earthquakes around the world.

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Transforming Governance: How National Policies and Organizations for Managing Disaster Recovery Evolved Following the 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 Canterbury Earthquakes

Laurie A. Johnson, and Ljubica Mamula-Seadon.
Earthquake Spectra, Volume 30, No. 1, pages 577–605, February 2014.

 
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Abstract

Large-scale disasters simultaneously deplete capital stock and services which
then requires many complex rebuilding and societal activities to happen in a compressed
time period; one of those is governance. Governments often create new
institutions or adapt existing institutions to cope with the added demands. Over
two years following the 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 Canterbury
earthquakes, governance transformations have increasingly centralized recovery
authority and operations at the national level. This may have helped to strengthen
coordination among national agencies and expedite policy and decision making;
but the effectiveness of coordination among multiple levels of government, capacity
building at the local and regional levels, and public engagement and deliberation
of key decisions are some areas where the transformations may not have
been as effective. The Canterbury case offers many lessons for future disaster
recovery management in New Zealand, the United States, and the world.
[DOI: 10.1193/032513EQS078M]

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2013

Build Back Better: Lessons from Sri Lanka;s Recovery from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Sandeeka Mannakkara, Suzanne Wilkinson
International Journal of Architectural Research.  Archnet-IJAR, Volume 7 - Issue 3 - November 2013 - (108-121) - Special Issue. 2013.

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Abstract

The concept “Building Back Better” (BBB) was formally introduced following the 2004 Indian
Ocean Tsunami, which implies using a collaborative approach to improve the physical, social
and economic conditions of a community during post-disaster reconstruction and recovery. This paper introduces eight BBB Principles which contribute towards achieving BBB. The post-tsunami recovery effort in Sri Lanka was examined using the BBB Principles to determine the extent to which BBB has been incorporated in immediate and long-term disaster management practices. Reports, literature, and data collected from a site visit made to Sri Lanka in 2010/2011 were analysed to establish the findings. Although BBB concepts were recognized, failure in execution resulted in a non-BBB recovery. Lessons learnt from shortcomings have been understood and incorporated into current disaster management practices. Good BBB practices currently in effect include: hazard-based land-use planning and risk-based structural regulations; increased awareness; participatory approaches; and stakeholder training. The absence of legislative support to implement BBB initiatives is the only draw-back preventing so far. Lessons from Sri Lanka can benefit disaster management practices worldwide

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Resourcing of the Canterbury rebuild: Case studies of construction organisations

Alice Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, Dave Brunsdon
January 2013, Resilient Organisations Research Report 2013/01. 

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Executive Summary

The Canterbury earthquakes have generated economic demand and supply volatility, highlighting geographical and structural interdependencies. Post-earthquake reconstruction and new developments have seen skills training, relocation, recruitment and importation of skills becoming crucial for construction companies to meet demand and compete effectively. This report presents 15 case studies from a range of organisations involved in the Canterbury rebuild, exploring the business dynamics and outcomes of their resourcing initiatives. A key finding of this research is that, for many construction organisations, resourcing initiatives have become part of their organisational longer-term development strategies, rather than simply a response to ‘supply and demand’ pressures. Organisations are not relying on any single resourcing solution to drive their growth but use a combination of initiatives to create lasting business benefits, such as cost savings, improved brand and reputation, a stable and productive workforce, enhanced efficiency and staff morale, as well as improved skill levels.

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Building Natural Disaster Response Capacity: Sound workforce strategies for recovery and reconstruction. (2013).

 APEC Human Resources Development Working Group. 
Report prepared by Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Erica Seville, Suzanne Wilkinson, Bernard Walker.   December 2013 

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Executive Summary

This report examines and compares case studies of labour market policy responses in APEC economies to natural disasters. It first reviews the policies and practice within APEC economies and internationally in managing the labour market effects of natural disasters. By using comparative case studies, the report then compares recent disaster events in the Asia-Pacific region, including:
 the June 2013 Southern Alberta floods in Canada;
 the 2010 and 2011 Queensland floods in Australia;
 the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes in New Zealand;
 the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan; and
 the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.
A disaster differs from other shocks and disturbances to a local economy and workforce. This report identifies patterns of impact that disasters have on the workforce, and labour market issues that emerge during recovery. Common disaster effects on labour markets included: job and worker displacement; loss of income; disruptions to workers’ livelihoods; and creating additional participation barriers, particularly for females, youth, and individuals with lower skill sets. Comparison of different disaster events reveals insights into how disasters can change labour market structures post-disaster. General economic conditions, sectoral structure, as well as business and individual coping mechanisms all influence the outcomes for an affected labour market. Other factors, such as institutional arrangements, networks, administrative capacity, and fiscal space, impact the ability of individual economies to deliver assistance. Case study economies responded to disaster in different ways. Scale of the event, demographics of affected labour force and availability of resources were key considerations for the scope, form and duration of their labour market response. Well-established employment and social measures enabled some economies to respond quickly with existing programmes, while others relied on discretionary labour market policy measures.

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Leading in a Post-disaster Setting: Guidance for Human Resource Practitioners

Venkataraman Nilakant, Bernard Walker, Kylie Rochford and Kate van Heugten

New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 38(1):1-14 2013

 
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Abstract

Based on a qualitative study of four organisations involving 47 respondents following the extensive 2010 – 2011 earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, this paper presents some guidance for human resource practitioners dealing with post-disaster recovery. A key issue is the need for the human resource function to reframe its practices in a post-disaster context, developing a specific focus on understanding and addressing changing employee needs, and monitoring the leadership behaviour of supervisors. This article highlights the importance of flexible organisational responses based around a set of key principles concerning communication and employee perceptions of company support.

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Rural organizational impacts, mitigation strategies, and resilience to the 2010 Darfield earthquake, New Zealand

Z. R. Whitman, T. M. Wilson, E. Seville, J. Vargo, J. R. Stevenson, H. Kachali, J. Cole. 

Natural Hazards, 2013, DOI 10.1007/s11069-013-0782-z 2013.

 
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Abstract

The 4 September 2010 Mw 7.1 'Darfield' earthquake and associated aftershock
sequence affected the central Canterbury Plains of New Zealand's South Island, an
area of high-intensity agricultural production, supported by rural service towns.
With rural organizations exposed to intense ground shaking that caused
widespread critical service outages, structural and non-structural damage to built
infrastructure, as well as ground surface damage from flooding, liquefaction or
surface rupture, the event represented a unique opportunity to study the impacts of
a major earthquake and aftershock sequence on farming and rural non-farming
organizations. This paper analyses the short-term impacts to 56 farming
organizations and compares them to the impacts to 22 rural non-farming
organizations four months following the event. The most commonly cited direct
impacts to farming organizations were disruption to electrical services, water
supply disruption and structural damage. For rural non-farming organizations, the
most common direct impacts were non-structural damage, electricity disruption,
and damage to equipment. The effect of stress on farmers was the greatest
2
organizational challenge while rural non-farming organizations cited maintaining
cash flow to be of greater significance. In terms of mitigating the effects of the
event, farming organizations cited well-built buildings and insurers to be helpful
generally, and their neighbors to be most helpful specifically in areas of higher
intensity shaking. Rural non-farming organizations utilized lenders or insurers,
and showed very little use of neighbor relationships. In summary, this study
emphasizes the fact that farming and rural non-farming organizations are
impacted and respond to an earthquake in ways that are fundamentally distinct.

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Insurance in the tourism sector after the Canterbury earthquakes

Orchiston, C., Vargo, J., Seville, E., (2013),

Australian and New Zealand Institute of Insurance and Finance (ANZIIF), Vol. 35, Iss. No 4.

 
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Abstract

The Canterbury earthquakes caused huge amounts of damage to Christchurch and the
surrounding area and presented a very challenging situation for both insurers and claimants.
While tourism has suffered significant losses as a result, particularly due to the subsequent
decrease in visitor numbers, the Canterbury region was very fortunate to have high levels
of insurance coverage. This report, based on data gathered from tourism operators on the
ground in Canterbury, looks at how this sector has been affected by the quakes, claims
patterns, and the behaviour and perceptions of tourism operators about insurance.

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Build Back Better principles for post-disaster structural improvements

Sandeeka Mannakkara, Suzanne Wilkinson,

Structural Survey, Vol. 31 Iss: 4, (2013) pp.314 – 327

 
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Abstract

This paper aims to inform stakeholders involved in post-disaster reconstruction how to
incorporate Build Back Better (BBB) principles when implementing structural design
improvements to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the rebuilding process.

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Post-disaster Management of Human Resources: Learning From an Extended Crisis

Venkataraman Nilakant, Bernard Walker, Kylie Rochford
April 2013, Resilient Organisations Research Report 2013/03

 
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Introduction

Disasters are rare events with major consequences; yet comparatively little is known about managing employee needs in disaster situations. Based on case studies of four organisations following the devastating earthquakes of 2010 - 2011 in Christchurch, New Zealand, this paper presents a framework using redefined notions of employee needs and expectations, and charting the ways in which these influence organisational recovery and performance. Analysis of in-depth interview data from 47 respondents in four organisations highlighted the evolving nature of employee needs and the crucial role of middle management leadership in mitigating the effects of disasters. The findings have counterintuitive implications for human resource functions in a disaster, suggesting that organisational justice forms a central framework for managing organisational responses to support and engage employees for promoting business recovery.

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Intuitive decisions and heuristics: an alternative rationality

D. G. Elms and C. B. Brown.
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 2013; 30 (3-4):274-284.

 
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Abstract

Two ways of making a decision are objectively using formal analysis and subjectively using intuition. Psychological research has shown that the latter leads to better decisions in complex situations. Intuitive decision-making uses simplified rules of thumb heuristics. In engineering terms, complexity implies complex systems. A set of rules and principles – heuristics – is presented as a guide for making subjective decisions in complex system contexts, one aspect of which is to provide quality control and guard against bias and error. An extended practical example of the use of these heuristics is given involving assessment of the safety of nuclear-powered ships.

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Myths and Realities of Reconstruction Workers' Accommodation

Alice Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville, Dave Brunsdon
February 2013, Resilient Organisations Research Report 2013/02

 
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Executive Summary

Christchurch and Canterbury suffered significant housing losses due to the
earthquakes. Estimates from the Earthquake Commission (EQC) (2011) suggest that over 150,000 homes (around three quarters of Christchurch housing stock) sustained damage from the earthquakes. Some areas of Christchurch have been declared not suitable for rebuilding, affecting more than 7,500 residential properties. There are multiple pressures likely to come on to housing availability over the next
few years:
 Red zoned residents are looking for replacement housing,
 Residents of damaged housing will be looking for temporary accommodation
while their houses are repaired or rebuilt, and
 Out-of-town workers coming in to support the rebuild (and their families) will
be looking for either temporary or permanent housing.
International experience, together with Christchurch case studies, has suggested the above pressures may create the following ripple effects in Christchurch:
 A lack of accommodation for construction workers is likely to be a major
constraint to the rebuilding of Christchurch. The construction sector may
experience difficulties sourcing temporary accommodation for out-of-town
workers in suitable and affordable solutions, which could ultimately slow the
rebuild.
 Competing demand/ demand surge for temporary accommodation is likely to
contribute to post-disaster inflation. If post-disaster inflation gets too high, it
can hinder economic recovery.
 Demand for housing from construction workers is likely to compound the
shortage of houses available to residents displaced by the earthquakes.
Case studies from a range of organisations involved in the Canterbury rebuild have
shown that hiring strategies have changed the landscape of workforce demographics,
as construction companies look overseas for skilled workers. To accommodate new
and relocated/seconded employees from outside Christchurch, a number of
accommodation options have been used, including:
 Workers on short-term relocation/secondment (e.g. weekly or fortnightly fly in
and out) are likely to stay in apartments, townhouses, motel and hotel rooms,
Bed & Breakfast and home stays.
 Staff on longer relocation and/or secondment are often housed in rental
properties and company-owned houses.
 For those recruited from overseas on a short-term or permanent basis, as well
as staff on permanent transfer, companies tend to provide relocation assistance
as part of their employment package; This often involves providing temporary
ii | P a g e
accommodation for a short period till they find their own temporary or
permanent housing solutions. Most employees who relocated from overseas
preferred to find permanent housing.
 In most cases, companies had found they needed to secure accommodation of
various types on a longer lease and have at least one HR person dedicated to
assisting staff in finding their own temporary or permanent housing solutions.
Some companies secured the services of letting agencies to help fast track staff
and their families into private rental properties, and to assist in property
purchase if required.

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Professional decisions: responsibilities.

D. G. Elms and C. B. Brown.
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 2013; 29 (3):176-190.

 
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Abstract

The responsibilities which civil engineers, and particularly the engineer of record, accept are considered. The interaction with other decision-makers such as the owner, stakeholders, the law and contractors results in complexity that can be partially resolved by the introduction of protocols in the form of regulations and codes of practice. However, uncertainty always exists and can result in surprises that can produce both beneficial and bad results. The sections entitled the cast, protocols and reality, advocacy and surprise, and complexity cover these topics. The nature of responsibility is analysed. Professional engineers work within an increasingly complex environment and have a responsibility to acquire and use skills beyond those applicable to traditional technical issues.

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Professional decisions: the central role of models.

D. G. Elms and C. B. Brown.
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems 2013; 29 (3):165-175. 

 
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Abstract

Engineering is largely concerned with models and modelling. Models provide a context in which decisions are made. Here, the modelling process is considered in a general sense and then the relationship with engineering models is developed. For understanding, a first step is to differentiate and categorise. Thus, 10 types of engineering models are proposed and their purposes with respect to professional decision-making are discussed. The role of models in engineering failures is also considered.

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The role of insurance in organisational recovery following the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes

Charlotte Brown, Erica Seville, John Vargo
April 2013, Resilient Organisations Research Report 2013/04
(http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/the_role_of_insurance-exec_summary-1.pdf)

 
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Executive Summary

Insurance is widely acknowledged as a key component in an organisation's disaster preparedness and resilience. But how effective is insurance in aiding business recovery following a major disaster? The aim of this research was to summarise the experiences of both the insurance industry and businesses dealing with commercial insurance claims following the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes. This exploratory research is based on qualitative analysis of data from 12 expert interviews and literature review of over 50 documents. The interviews were with professionals involved in various aspects of the organisational insurance claims process in Christchurch; representing both insurer and claimant perspectives. Key recommendations for the insurance industry, organisations and for future research have been drawn from the analysis. These are summarised below. New Zealand has a relatively high insurance penetration rate but underinsurance was reported as an issue following the earthquakes. Businesses were also frustrated by the slow speed of claims settlement. There were a number of significant factors that complicated the claims process and contributed to the delays, including: the number of damaging earthquakes, the number of claims, the extent of damage, open-ended policy wording, resource constraints, regulatory changes and technical challenges. The major lessons for insurers are about ensuring that their policies are clearer with better defined terms and conditions in the future. In particular, there was confusion in policy interpretation regarding reinstatement of cover, the extent and applicability of replacement policies, the use of the term ‘as-new’, the general public’s understanding of insurance policies (due to complicated wording) and inconsistency in policy interpretation. All these issues contributed to delays in claims settlements, client frustration and significantly increased insurers’ liability.
The authors suggest that insurance policies could be better designed to meet the specific needs of some sectors. Particular sectors that have been identified as having unique insurance requirements include the tertiary education sector, tourism, manufacturing, central city business district-based

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Short-Form version of the Benchmark Resilience Tool (BRT-53)

Z.R. Whitman, H. Kachali, D. Roger, J. Vargo, E. Seville

Measuring Business Excellence, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp3-14. 2013. 

 
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Abstract

The Benchmark Resilience tool (BRT-53) is an organisational-level resilience quantification
methodology which assesses behavioural traits and perceptions linked to the organisation’s ability to
plan for, respond to and recover from emergencies and crises. The BRT-53 is a survey with 53
questions (items) that yields a 13 scale profile or organisational resilience based on 13 theoretical
constructs. Items are drawn from the BRT-53 to create two shorter forms of the tool using two
different methods for comparative purposes. The first method involves the selection of items based
on the 13 theoretical constructs used in the development of the original tool. This shortened index is
called the BRT-13A. The second method derived 13 items from the theoretical constructs using
statistical correlations of the items within each construct. This shortened index is called the BRT-13B.
The scores from each short-form index were computed into overall resilience scores that were then
compared with the overall resilience scores generated from the BRT-53. The results of these
comparisons found that both the BRT-13A and BRT-13B produced valid and reliably similar results to
the BRT-53. The BRT-13B proved to be slightly more valid and reliable than the BRT-13A and is
recommended over the BRT-53 as the short-form version significantly decreases the likelihood of
survey fatigue and low response rates with very little sacrifice to survey validity or reliability.

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The Earthquake Support Subsidy for Christchurch's small and medium enterprises: Perspectives from business owners.

Ruth Fischer-Smith (2013).

Small Enterprise Research, Vol 20, Issue 1, 40-54.

 
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Abstract

Following the February 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, the government enacted an Earthquake Support Subsidy (ESS) to assist small businesses. By acting as a temporary pay cheque for employees, this policy was intended to alleviate immediate financial pressure on firms, enabling them to make more measured decisions regarding their future. In the months following the earthquake, this research conducted interviews with 26 owners of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) on policy perceptions and experiences, including what impact, if any, the ESS had on their business operations. Correspondence with key national agencies, as well as local business support organisations, supplemented the interviews. This article frames its findings within the larger themes of SME relationships to the public policy process. It also touches briefly on comparative policy strategies of different national governments regarding post-disaster assistance programmes for SMEs.

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Key Elements of Sectoral Recovery and Resilience after the Canterbury Earthquakes: A System Dynamics Approach

Hlekiwe Kachali, University of Canterbury, PhD thesis 2013. 

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Abstract

The Canterbury region of New Zealand experienced four earthquakes greater than MW 6.0 between September 2010 and December 2011. This study employs system dynamics as well as hazard, recovery and organisational literature and brings together data collected via surveys, case studies and interviews with organisations affected by the earthquakes. This is to show how systemic interactions and interdependencies within and between industry and geographic sectors affect their recovery post-disaster. The industry sectors in the study are: construction for its role in the rebuild, information and communication technology which is a regional high-growth industry, trucking for logistics, critical infrastructure, fast moving consumer goods (e.g. supermarkets) and hospitality to track recovery through non-discretionary and discretionary spend respectively. Also in the study are three urban centres including the region’s largest Central Business District, which has been inaccessible since the earthquake of 22 February 2011 to the time of writing in February 2013. This work also highlights how earthquake effects propagated between sectors and how sectors collaborated to mitigate difficulties such as product demand instability. Other interacting factors are identified that influence the recovery trajectories of the different industry sectors. These are resource availability, insurance payments, aid from central government, and timely and quality recovery information. This work demonstrates that in recovering from disaster it is crucial for organisations to identify what interacting factors could affect their operations. Also of importance are efforts to reduce the organisation’s vulnerability and increase their resilience to future crises and in day-to-day operations. Lastly, the multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the recovery and resilience of organisations and industry sectors after disaster, leads to a better understanding of effects as well as more effective recovery policy.
Appendices:
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-a-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-b-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-c-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-d-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-e-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-f-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-g-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-h-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-i-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-j-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-k-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-l-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-m-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-n-kachali.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-o-kachali.pdf


 

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Resource challenges for housing reconstruction: A longitudinal study of the Australian bushfires

Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville

Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol 22, Issue 2, 2013 

 
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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify resourcing challenges that face
housing rebuild following the 2009 Victorian ‘Black Saturday’ bushfires in Australia and
to examine the impacts of resource shortages on longer term community recovery.

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Developing a Tool to Measure and Compare Organizations’ Resilience

Lee, A., Vargo, J., and Seville, E. (2013).
Nat. Hazards Rev., 10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000075, 29-41.

 
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Abstract

Organizational and community resilience are interrelated and interdependent. As a result, organizational resilience is a critical component of communities’ ability to plan for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and crises. Organizational resilience can also be a source of competitiveness and a driver of cultural adaptive capacity. To invest in resilience, organizations need to understand their resilience strengths and weaknesses and must be able to evaluate the effectiveness of resilience strategies. This paper develops a survey tool that organizations can use to identify their strengths and weaknesses and to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of their resilience strategies and investments.

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Employee Resilience Scale (EmpRes): Technical Report.

 Katharina Näswall, Joana Kuntz, Morgana Hodliffe, Sanna Malinen. 
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2013/06.

 
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Abstract

Building on definitions of organisational resilience, employee resilience is
conceptualised as the capacity of employees, facilitated and supported by the
organisation, to utilise resources to positively cope, adapt and thrive in response to
changing work circumstances. To date, measures of resilience are more focused on
capturing resilience as an individual characteristic, rather than something enabled by the organisation. The present report presents a preliminary validation of the
Employee Resilience Scale (EmpRes).

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Effects of workers' accommodation in Christchurch.

Yan Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, David Brunsdon, Erica Seville.
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2013/05.  May 2013. 

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Overview

To understand the size and scale of the workers’ accommodation needs as they relate to housing pressures (the private market and social housing) in the greater Christchurch area, it is necessary to get an indication of trends in supply, price and affordability of construction workers’ accommodation in the region. A shortage of temporary accommodation has become a real concern for many construction organisations engaged in repairs and rebuild in Christchurch. A research initiative from the Resilient Organisations research programme responds to this concern by surveying construction companies about their accommodation demand and also asked accommodation providers about the supply. Evidence from both construction companies (demand) and accommodation suppliers (supply) provide insights into the complexity of accommodation needs and how they interact and respond. Resilient Organisations aims to present up‐to‐date qualitative and quantitative data on what the shortages will be – short‐term or long‐term, across demand organisations (engineering, construction, building suppliers, other services industries), supply sectors (tourism operators, private rental market, commercial housing market) and at varied income levels

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2012

*Tourism Resilience and Recovery after the Canterbury Earthquakes.

Orchiston, C., Seville, E., & Vargo, J.

APEC SME Crisis Monitor, Issue 8, December 2012.

 
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The Canterbury Earthquakes: Impacts on Farming Organisations.

Whitman, Z., Seville, E., Wilson, T., & Vargo, J.

APEC SME Monitor, Issue 4, August 2012, p 5-10.

 
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Abstract

In this issue of the APEC SME Monitor, a variety of topics were discussed through the experts of
APEC SME Crisis Management Center. Under the first section, "SME Development", the need to build
disaster resilient societies has been widely reiterated due to the serious damages from natural disaster.
Expert refers to the statistics of Thailand flood impact on the local automotive production and supply
chains during 2011, where considerable emphasis was placed on the importance of developing publicprivate
partnerships within our own economies to ensure long-term sustainability of businesses.

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Impact assessment of the May 2010 eruption of Pacaya volcano, Guatemala

Wardman, J., Sword-Daniels, V., Stewart, C. and Wilson, T.
GNS Science Report 2012/09, 99 p.

 
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Disaster Waste Management: A systems approach

Charlotte Brown, University of Canterbury, PhD thesis 2012.

 
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Abstract

Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. Waste volumes from a single event can be the equivalent of many times the annual waste generation rate of the affected community. These volumes can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and personnel. Mismanagement of disaster waste can affect both the response and long term recovery of a disaster affected area. Previous research into disaster waste management has been either context specific or event specific, making it difficult to transfer lessons from one disaster event to another. The aim of this research is to develop a systems understanding of disaster waste management and in turn develop context- and disaster-transferrable decision-making guidance for emergency and waste managers. To research this complex and multi-disciplinary problem, a multi-hazard, multi-context, multicase study approach was adopted. The research focussed on five major disaster events: 2011 Christchurch earthquake, 2009 Victorian Bushfires, 2009 Samoan tsunami, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake and 2005 Hurricane Katrina. The first stage of the analysis involved the development of a set of ‘disaster & disaster waste’ impact indicators. The indicators demonstrate a method by which disaster managers, planners and researchers can simplify the very large spectra of possible disaster impacts, into some key decision-drivers which will likely influence post-disaster management requirements. The second stage of the research was to develop a set of criteria to represent the desirable environmental, economic, social and recovery effects of a successful disaster waste management system. These criteria were used to assess the effectiveness of the disaster waste management approaches for the case studies. The third stage of the research was the cross-case analysis. Six main elements of disaster waste management systems were identified and analysed. These were: strategic management, funding mechanisms, operational management, environmental and human health risk management, and legislation and regulation. Within each of these system elements, key decision-making guidance (linked to the ‘disaster & disaster waste’ indicators) and management principles were developed. The ‘disaster & disaster waste’ impact indicators, the effects assessment criteria and management principles have all been developed so that they can be practically applied to disaster waste management planning and response in the future.
Appendices:
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-a.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-b.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-c.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-d.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-e.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-f.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-g.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-h.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-i.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-j.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-k.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-l.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-m.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-n.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-o.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-p.cbrown.pdf
http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/appendix-q.cbrown.pdf

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The Canterbury Earthquakes: System Dynamics of Sectoral Recovery.

Kachali, H., Seville, E., & Vargo, J.

APEC SME Monitor, Issue 5, September 2012, p 4-7

 
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Abstract

In this issue of the APEC SME Monitor, we continue to deliver a wide variety of topics
discussed by the experts ofAPEC SME Crisis Management Center. In the "SME Development"
section, experts demonstrated that China, Viet Nam, and Indonesia currently hold the dominant
position in the global OEM market rather than Chinese Taipei. Therefore, firms in Chinese Taipei
should attempt to transform and upgrade its structure in order to maintain its competitiveness.
In this context, it means to create value that "exceeds customer expectation", as well as deliver
desirable products and service

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Improving the Resilience of SMEs: policy and practice in New Zealand

Tracy Hatton, Erica Seville, John Vargo
Report prepared as part of an APEC project on SME Resilience.  Resilient Organisations Research Report 2012/12

 
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Introduction

There are many things that organisations of any size can do to prepare for a disaster or crisis. Traditionally, the advice given to business has focused on identifying risks, reducing their likely occurrence, and planning in advance how to respond. More recently, there is growing interest in the broader concept of organisational resilience which includes planning for crisis but also considers traits that lead to organisational adaptability and ability to thrive despite adverse circumstances. In this paper we examine the policy frameworks within New Zealand that influence the resilience of small and medium sized businesses (SMEs). The first part of the paper focuses on the New Zealand context, including the prevailing political and economic ideologies, the general nature of New Zealand SMEs and the nature of New Zealand’s hazard environment. The paper then goes on to outline the key policy frameworks in place relevant to SMEs and hazards. The final part of the paper examines the way the preexisting policy environment influenced the response of SMEs and Government following the Canterbury earthquakes. Whilst this report’s focus is on the SME sector, it is clear from both the disaster research tradition and responses from public sector and businesses interviewed in this research that consideration must be given to their interdependencies. SMEs are reliant on many things, particularly critical infrastructure such as power, water, telecommunications and transport links. Additional interdependencies relate to suppliers, staff and customers. The preparedness of SMEs cannot be viewed in isolation as any significant failure in other sectors is likely to have an impact on their performance.

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The Canterbury Earthquakes: Impacts on Farming Organisations.

Whitman, Z., Seville, E., Wilson, T., & Vargo, J.

APEC SME Monitor, Issue 4, August 2012, p 5-10

 
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Abstract

In this issue of the APEC SME Monitor, a variety of topics were discussed through the experts of
APEC SME Crisis Management Center. Under the first section, "SME Development", the need to build
disaster resilient societies has been widely reiterated due to the serious damages from natural disaster.
Expert refers to the statistics of Thailand flood impact on the local automotive production and supply
chains during 2011, where considerable emphasis was placed on the importance of developing publicprivate
partnerships within our own economies to ensure long-term sustainability of businesses.

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The Canterbury Earthquakes: Challenges and Opportunities for Central Business District Organisations.

Stevenson, J., Seville, E., & Vargo, J.

APEC SME Monitor, Issue 2, June 2012, p 3-7

 
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Abstract

This issue of APEC SME Monitor provides insightful articles for the SMEs in different aspects.
In the first section, "SME Development" , our experts report on the platforms and the development
of SMEs in East Asia. In the "SME Challenges" section, after the brief introduction of Canterbury
earthquake in New Zealand in last monitor, our expert from New Zealand focuses on the challenges
and opportunities for Central Business District organisations. Another article to be noted is from
our expert from the Philippines talking about the perils of typhoons in the Philippines

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Resourcing the Canterbury Rebuild: Changes and Emerging Themes

Alice Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville. June 2012
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2012/02

 
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Summary

The second quarter of 2012 has seen a clearer plan for the recovery of Christchurch
over the next few years. The targeted Government’s agenda involves a $5.5 billion
2012 Government Budget 1 and the creation of a new Christchurch Central
Development Unit2 to lead the rebuild of Christchurch Central. This in turn enables
the organisations involved in the rebuilding of Christchurch to start finding efficiencies as part of their resourcing plans. Depending on the pace of recovery, and the emergence of damage information as properties and buildings are assessed, the estimated demand for workers varies significantly. The labour forecasts show between 20,000 and 30,000 extra construction-related workers could be required at the peak of the rebuild (CESB, 2011). In the national context, the Canterbury rebuild and other significant projects across New Zealand are forecast to drive up construction-related employment by about 6% in the 2013 March year and by about 11% in the 2014 March year (DoL, 2012).
Within these economic parameters, construction organisations have been gearing up with a wide range of resourcing initiatives to link the organisations’ development with immigration, education, innovation and employment. Since 2012, there have been signs of construction businesses actively working alongside the government and industry agencies, such as the Industry Training Organisations (ITOs), Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA), Canterbury Employment and Skills Board (CESB), Canterbury Employers’ Chamber of Commerce (CECC) and Canterbury Development Corporation (CDC), in skills training and development. Various joint actions were established to find innovative solutions to one of the most fundamental issues New Zealand construction industry faces − low productivity and low efficiency. Interviews with construction organisations in May 2012 confirmed the major issues noted in the RecRes project’s January and April reports (Chang and Wilkinson, 2012; Chang et al., 2012) remain current. In the second quarter of 2012, major challenges for these organisations in the rebuild process are still attributed to a resources issue. There have been changes in resource demands and corresponding strategy adjustments the recovery stakeholders employed in response to those changes. The perceived changes and prominent issues were:
 Resource effects are more apparent as the rebuild picks up, with some
construction businesses struggling while others have proved resilient to
resource shortages.
 Nationwide, engineering companies have felt a major pinch, with more nonChristchurch-based
structural and geotechnical engineers rotating to local
branches and increased recruitment from other seismic-prone countries.

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The Canterbury Earthquake Series: Business Impacts Overview

Stevenson, J., Seville, E., & Vargo, J. 

APEC SME Monitor, Issue 1, May 2012,  p 6-9

 
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Abstract

Recently, the global economy is experiencing signs of slowing down, and natural disasters
have increased sharply in nearly every decade. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are facing
continuous natural disasters and potential impacts, such as disruptions to the global supply chains,
difficulties of access to financing and rising material and transportation costs. In order to improve
the resilience to natural disasters and management capabilities of SMEs, Chinese Taipei has
proposed a multi-year project in assisting APEC SMEs for facilitating trade and investment in
the region. Thanks to all APEC member economies' supports, this project is approved by APEC
SMEWG (Small and Medium Enterprises Working Group) and aims to:
1. Enhance the awareness of SMEs and governments on natural disaster risks;
2. Share best practices and assist SMEs to implement disaster preemptive mechanisms; and
3. Identify threats and possible solutions for SMEs.

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Grey District Readiness for a Major Catastrophic Event: Grey District Council.

On behalf of the Grey District Council. 
Report prepared by Ian McCahon, David Elms, Rob Dewhirst, Hlekiwe Kachali.  August 2012 

 
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Executive Summary

This report supplements the 2007 report “Grey District Lifeline Plan: Community and Council, and deals with lessons to be learned from the experience of Christchurch in the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes. Activities following a disaster have two distinct phases: response and recovery. The response period lasts for a very few weeks and is essentially the immediate emergency period. It deals with rescue and with getting the basic lifeline services of water, power, roading and so on up and running, albeit in an interim fashion. During the recovery period that follows, the aim is to restore the community’s economy to normal functioning – although it might be a new normality.
The 2007 Report focussed primarily on lifelines. When we set out to work on this 2012 report, we found that for the most part the lifelines in Christchurch had performed much as expected, and a good deal better than would have been the case had the earlier lifelines projects resulting from the publication Risks and Realities not resulted in hardening and protection of most of the infrastructure. To our surprise, we found that the major problems and difficulties arose not in the response period but in recovery. Accordingly, the present report focusses on the lessons to be learned for recovery from a disaster. We tackled the issue from a systems point of view – that is, we looked at the problem as a whole, trying to find gaps, misconnections, unbalanced relations and so on. To find the necessary information we talked with a number of people intimately involved in recovery. They were generous with their time and eager to help. The details of the Christchurch experience produced a number of lessons of a general nature, applicable to any disaster situation. The question was then, how could these lessons apply in the specific context of the Grey District? We are not sufficiently familiar with the District to give specific recommendations. This could only be done locally. Instead, we looked generally at ways in which Grey District is different from Christchurch, then set down a number of issues which we believe the District should consider, in addition to the lessons. The report ends with a recommendation that Grey District holds a workshop to discuss the lessons and how they might apply locally, particularly aiming to come up with a prioritised list of practical steps that could be taken to ensure that when disaster hits – and it will – the District recovers in an orderly and effective way, avoiding as far as possible the problems shown up in Christchurch. The following section summarises the lessons and issues, also listed in the main body of the report, grouping them into six major areas of concern.

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APEC project on SME Resilience, Resilient Organisations research report

Tracy Hatton, Erica Seville, John Vargo
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2012/12

 
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Introduction

There are many things that organisations of any size can do to prepare for a disaster or crisis. Traditionally, the advice given to business has focused on identifying risks, reducing their likely occurrence, and planning in advance how to respond. More recently, there is growing interest in the broader concept of organisational resilience which includes planning for crisis but also considers traits that lead to organisational adaptability and ability to thrive despite adverse circumstances. In this paper we examine the policy frameworks within New Zealand that influence the resilience of small and medium sized businesses (SMEs). The first part of the paper focuses on the New Zealand context, including the prevailing political and economic ideologies, the general nature of New Zealand SMEs and the nature of New Zealand’s hazard environment. The paper then goes on to outline the key policy frameworks in place relevant to SMEs and hazards. The final part of the paper examines the way the preexisting policy environment influenced the response of SMEs and Government following the Canterbury earthquakes. Whilst this report’s focus is on the SME sector, it is clear from both the disaster research tradition and responses from public sector and businesses interviewed in this research that consideration must be given to their interdependencies. SMEs are reliant on many things, particularly critical infrastructure such as power, water, telecommunications and transport links. Additional interdependencies relate to suppliers, staff and customers. The preparedness of SMEs cannot be viewed in isolation as any significant failure in other sectors is likely to have an impact on their performance.

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Learning from Christchurch: Technical Decisions and Societal Consequences in Post-Earthquake Recovery

Preliminary Research Findings August 2012
Josh E. Taylor, Stephanie E. Chang, Kenneth J. Elwood, Erica Seville, Dave Brunsdon
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2012/08

 
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Executive Summary

The Canterbury earthquakes have presented decision-makers in New Zealand with difficult choices. The scale of the impacts relative to the national economy and the number of earthquakes have created challenges that are being felt nationally, and the disruption to Canterbury is expected to be long-term. During the response and recovery, different levels of Government have made decisions, often in uncharted waters, under tight time frames, and with significant consequences. This report presents preliminary findings from research on recovery-related decision-making. The objectives are to identify major decisions that have been made since February 2011 and to gain insights into which of those have been most important in the early recovery of Christchurch. The eventual goal is to share the experience of those in Christchurch with decision-makers in other earthquake-prone areas around the world.
Data was gathered from 23 key-informant interviews conducted in Christchurch and Wellington in May 2012. Interviews were conducted with knowledgeable representatives of government organisations, non-governmental organisations, community groups, and the insurance/reinsurance sector. Interview questions focused on four areas: recovery progress, critical decisions, challenges going forward, and lessons learned.
Interviewees were first asked for their perspective on how well recovery was progressing. On a 7-point scale (where 1= “extremely poorly” and 7= “extremely well”), the mean response (4.1) was near the midpoint of the scale. From the data, it appears that respondents who were involved with or provided input to decision-making generally rated progress more highly than those who were less involved in the process. Secondly, the interviews focused on identifying critical decisions to-date in the recovery. The decision to establish a recovery agency, the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA), emerged as by far the most important decision so far in the recovery. The decision to buy out residential properties in the Eastern Suburbs was identified as another key decision with significant implications for those in the affected areas. The management of the Cordon around the heavily damaged Central Business District, and the decision to maintain it for an extended period of time, was highlighted as the third most important decision. Interviewees were also asked to identify the central challenges going forward. Several themes emerged, including capital flight, uncertainty regarding insurance and social dislocation created by the earthquakes. Respondents also cited several areas for lessons learned, including the importance of creating an inclusive recovery, and of balancing local and external voices.

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Resilience Tested: A year and a half of 10,000 aftershocks

Erica Seville, Chris Hawker, Jacqui Lyttle. 
University of Canterbury, 2012.

 
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Introduction

On the second day of teaching for 2011, the University of Canterbury (UC) faced the most significant crisis of its 138-year history. After being shaken severely by a magnitude 7.1 earthquake on 4 September 2010, UC felt it was well along the pathway to getting back to ‘normal’. That all changed at 12:51pm on 22 February 2011, when Christchurch city was hit by an even more devastating event. A magnitude 6.3 (Modified Mercalli intensity ten – MM X) earthquake, just 13km south-east of the Christchurch city centre, caused vertical peak ground accelerations amongst the highest ever recorded in an urban environment, in some places more than twice the acceleration due to gravity. The earthquake caused immediate evacuation of the UC campus and resulted in significant damage to many buildings. Thankfully there were no serious injuries or fatalities on campus, but 185 people died in the city and many more suffered serious injuries. At the time of writing, eighteen months after the first earthquake in September, Christchurch is still experiencing regular earthquakes. Seismologists warn that the region may experience heightened seismicity for a decade or more. While writing this report we have talked with many different people from across the University. People’s experiences are different and we have not managed to talk with everyone, but we hope that by drawing together many different perspectives from across the campus that this report will serve two purposes; to retain our institutional memory of what we have learnt over the past eighteen months, and also to share our learnings with other organisations in New Zealand and around the world who, we hope, will benefit from learning about our experience.

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Resourcing the Canterbury Rebuild: Issues and Outlook

Alice Chang-Richards, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville. April 2012
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2012/01

 
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Introduction

This report is the output of a longitudinal study that was established between the
University of Auckland and Resilient Organisations, in conjunction with the Building Research Association of New Zealand (BRANZ), to evaluate the ongoing resource availability and capacity for post-earthquake reconstruction in Christchurch. The purpose of the research project, entitled ‘Disaster Reconstruction Resourcing’ (RecRes), is to gain an understanding of resource issues relevant to the built environment during disaster response and recovery, and of solutions to problems. The project includes three components: the online survey; in-depth interviews, and case studies. The Resource Availability for Christchurch Earthquake Reconstruction (RACER) online survey (www.recres.org.nz/survey) is the first step in the project, surveying construction industry practitioners and recovery participants across Canterbury to understand real-time resource challenges during post-earthquake repair and reconstruction. The preliminary data captured by the online survey between November 2011 and January 2012 is presented in the main RecRes report 1 Preliminary Results from the Resource Availability for Christchurch Earthquake Reconstruction (RACER) Survey, January 2012.
As a supplement, this report features a detailed analysis of how the different
reconstruction sectors mobilise and manage material, human and process resources
in a changing operational environment. Based on interview data, feedback and
experiences reported by industry practitioners, this report incorporates evidencebased and ‘best practice’ in supplying the Canterbury reconstruction.
By drawing together key supply issues arising in the following sectors: housing repair, horizontal infrastructure restoration, and demolition and repair of commercial buildings, the research can assist relevant stakeholders to understand and manage resources better.

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*Enhancing Organizations' Adaptive Capacity and Resilience through Effective Decision Making in the Recovery Phase

Dean Myburgh, Chris Webb, Erica Seville

The Business Continuity and Resiliency Journal, Q4 2012, pages 3-19 2012.

 
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Resilience Framework and Guidelines for Practice

Eileen Britt, Janet Carter, David Conradson, Anne Scott, John Vargo, Hannah Moss
October 2012.  Report for the Ministry of Social Development, New Zealand. 

 
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Introduction

The Canterbury earthquakes are unique in that the there have been a series of major earthquakes, each with their own subsequent aftershock pattern. These have extended from the first large earthquake in September 2010 to currently, at the time of writing, two years later. The last significant earthquake of over magnitude 5.0 on the Richter scale was in May on 2012, and the total number of aftershocks has exceeded 12,000. The consequences, in addition to the loss of life, significant injury and widespread damage, have been far reaching and long term, with detrimental effects and still uncertain effects for many. This provides unique challenges for individuals, communities, organisations and institutions within Canterbury. This document reviews research-based understandings of the concept of resilience. A conceptual model is developed which identifies a number of the factors that influence individual and household resilience. Guided by the model, a series of recommendations are developed for practices that will support individual and household resilience in Canterbury in the aftermath of the 2010-2011 earthquakes.

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Organisational Resilience and Recovery for Canterbury Organisations after the 4 September 2010 Earthquake

Kachali H., Stevenson J.R, Whitman Z., Seville E., Vargo J. & Wilson T

The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, Volume : 2012-1.

 
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Abstract

The 4 September 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake
had major physical, economic and social effects on
organisations in Canterbury, New Zealand. This paper
presents the results of a survey conducted between
November 2010 and February 2011 of organisations
based in the Canterbury region. Sampled organisations
include those belonging to six industry sectors: fastmoving
consumer goods (FMCG), trucking, information
and communication technology (ICT), hospitality,
building suppliers and critical infrastructure. Also
included are organisations from the Christchurch and
Kaiapoi central business districts (CBDs) as well as rural
organisations proximal to the fault trace.
Organisational recovery after the earthquake will be a
major undertaking and the challenges vary for different
organisations and industry sectors. This paper analyses
the initial effects of the 4 September event across
industry sectors and geographic areas. It also highlights
possible interdependencies and system characteristics
that affect recovery for these organisations and industry
sectors. Other factors considered include the specific
challenges organisations faced after this major hazard
event.

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*The health and environmental impacts of the June 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex eruption: a report on the findings of a multidisciplinary team investigation

Wilson, T.M., Stewart, C., Bickerton, H., Baxter, P.J., Outes, V., Villarosa, G., Rovere, E.

In press , GNS Science Report 2012/20, 99 p.

 
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Resourcing Issues in Past Disaster Recoveries: Some Perspectives

Alice Yan Chang-Richards, Erica Seville, Suzanne Wilkinson, David Brunsdon
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2012/07

 
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Preface

Resource availability is likely to be a significant issue for the Canterbury rebuild.
Systematic mapping, monitoring, and modelling of the labour demand in Canterbury has been happening since the quakes. Other input materials for reconstruction such as aggregate and cement are also being modelled to reflect the sector trends and performance in response to a large-scale disaster. However, understanding what is going on and what might happen remains a particular challenge for forecasters and policymakers. This report looks at general lessons that have emerged from other post-disaster reconstruction efforts around the world that are relevant to the Canterbury rebuild from a resource perspective. Whilst the details of every country’s experience differ, the nature of the recovery process post-disaster remains consistent. The information included in this report is derived from Resilient Organisations’ longitudinal studies of disasters in Indonesia, China and Australia. Much of the resourcing issues observed in those countries following their disasters are now being experienced in Christchurch. The data collected provides insights into the dynamic mechanism of resource changes over time. The way the past is understood will inevitably influence the way current challenges are approached. This report should inform the current long-term recovery planning in Christchurch, as well as post-disaster recovery planning for future events.

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Outcomes of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence for Tourism Businesses

Caroline Orchiston, John Vargo, Erica Seville
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2012/09 (http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/touism_canterbury_earthquakes-exec_summary-1.pdf)

 
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Executive Summary

The Christchurch earthquake sequence has been on-going since September 4th 2010. The largest two earthquakes, magnitude (M) 7.1 on September 4th and the M 6.3 on February 22nd 2011 caused immediate and significant damage to the city of Christchurch. As a consequence of the earthquakes, the tourism sector in the Canterbury region has been heavily impacted, with broader impacts being felt throughout the South Island. Resilient Organisations and the University of Canterbury began a series of quantitative investigations into the recovery and response of key business sectors to the earthquakes. The purpose of this study was to build on this work by exploring the outcomes of the earthquakes on the tourism sector, a critical economic driver in the region. Two postal surveys were sent to 719 tourism business managers; the first to businesses in the ‘Impact Zone’ defined as areas that experienced Modified Mercalli intensities greater than 6. The second survey was sent to the remaining businesses throughout the Canterbury region (‘Rest of Canterbury’). Response rates were 46% response for the Impact Zone, and 29% for the Rest of Canterbury.
Key findings:
• Tourism operators describe reduced visitor numbers as the most disruptive factor
since the earthquakes.
• While some businesses are still struggling, others are thriving. Parts of the
accommodation sector are performing very well, with motels and holiday parks
reporting positive outcomes compared to all other business types.
• Revenue changes after the earthquakes are polarised, and sector-dependent. Activity
and attraction, and visitor transport were significantly more likely to have reduced
revenue after February, while motels and holiday parks reported increased revenue.
• Almost all operators throughout Canterbury report changes in the types of visitors
their business receives as a consequence of the earthquakes.
• 70% of operators reported a decline in international visitor arrivals to their business after the earthquakes. Some districts outside Christchurch reported increased numbers of visitors from within Canterbury, illustrating the outflow of Christchurch residents seeking respite from the aftershocks

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Short- and long-term evacuation of people and livestock during a volcanic crisis: lessons from the 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson, Chile

Wilson, T., Cole, J., Johnston, D., Cronin, S., Stewart, C. and Dantas, A.

Journal of Applied Volcanology, 1, 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2191-5040-1-2 2012

 
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Abstract

Human and livestock evacuation during volcanic crises is an essential component of volcanic risk management. This study investigates the evacuation of human and livestock populations from areas impacted by ashfall from the 1991 Hudson eruption, Patagonia. The eruption was one of the largest in the 20th century resulting in significant impacts on rural communities in affected areas, including the evacuation of people and livestock. In the short-term (<3 months), evacuation of people from farms and rural towns was driven primarily by ashfall and ash storm impacts on public health and essential services. Severe impacts on livestock and the inability to restore vegetation growth following pasture burial, also meant pastoral farming became unsustainable in the short term. This resulted in evacuation of farms for usually <1, but up to 4 years following the ashfall and subsequent intense ash-storms. In areas of very heavy ashfall (>1 m) or where agricultural systems were stressed (from drought and long-term low commodity prices) many farms were abandoned, resulting in permanent migration of the farm population. Farms and farmers under pressure from marginal economic returns were the least likely to cope with the ‘shock’ of the ashfall. The financial capacity of farmers was important in their resilience and ability to return once conditions improved, although emotional attachment to the land sometime outweighed financial considerations. Evacuation of livestock in areas affected by ash falls was undertaken by many farmers, but it was not very successful or economically justifiable. Access for livestock trucks to the impacted area was difficult due to a poor road network, ashfall and snow induced blockage, and remobilised ash inhibiting visibility. The lack of reliable records of livestock populations inhibited evacuation and efforts to supply supplementary feed to the remaining livestock. The very poor condition of livestock prior to the eruption and burial of feed following the eruption often made evacuation uneconomic as well as reducing livestock resilience to cope with the eruption and transport impacts. The lack of capacity within the local livestock market and lack of available grazing land for the influx of transported livestock were also key failings of the evacuation effort.

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*Build Back Better – Implementation in Victorian Bushfire Reconstruction

Mannakarra, S, Wilkinson S, (2012).
Disasters: the journal of disaster studies, policy and management (in Press)

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Resourcing for post-disaster reconstruction: a comparative study of Indonesia and China

Chang, Y., S. Wilkinson, R. Potangaroa and E. Seville (2012).

Disaster Prevention and Management 21(1): 7-21.

 
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Abstract

There is a need to understand resourcing issues when reconstructing the built
environment in a post-disaster situation. The purpose of this paper is to determine the resourcing
difficulties that are likely to face the international practitioners in post-disaster reconstruction by
identifying and comparing the factors that affected resource availability following natural disasters in
Indonesia and China respectively

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2011

An integrated approach: managing resources for post-disaster reconstruction

Chang, Y., Wilkinson, S., Brunsdon d., Seville, E., & Potangaroa, R. (2011).

Disasters: the journal of disaster studies, policy and management, 35(4), 739-769

 
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Abstract

A lack of resources required for post-disaster housing reconstruction significantly limits the
degree to which a successful recovery can occur. In the aftermath of the 2008 Wenchuan
earthquake in China, the post-quake reconstruction of housing was not immune to resource
shortages and price inflation. This paper illustrates evidence of resourcing bottlenecks during the
post-Wenchuan earthquake reconstruction. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated
planning framework required to manage resources for post-disaster housing rebuilding. The
results are drawn from in-field surveys which highlight the areas where stakeholders need to
concentrate effort, including revising legislation and policy, enhancing capacity for rebuilding in
the construction industry, strengthening the transportation network, restructuring the market
mechanisms, and incorporating environmental considerations into the overall planning.

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Preliminary Observations of the Impacts the 22 February Christchurch Earthquake on Organisations and the Economy: A Report from the Field

Joanne Stevenson, Hlekiwe Kachali, Zachary Whitman, Erica Seville, John Vargo, Thomas Wilson
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2011/01

 
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Summary

On 22 February 2011, Canterbury and its largest city Christchurch experienced its second major earthquake within six months. The region is facing major economic and organisational challenges in the aftermath of these events. Approximately 25% of all buildings in the Christchurch CBD have been “red tagged” or deemed unsafe to enter. The New Zealand Treasury estimates that the combined cost of the February earthquake and the September earthquake is approximately NZ$15 billion[2]. This paper examines the national and regional economic climate prior to the event, discusses the immediate economic implications of this event, and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations affected by this event. In order to facilitate recovery of the Christchurch area, organisations must adjust to a new norm; finding ways not only to continue functioning, but to grow in the months and years following these earthquakes. Some organisations relocated within days to areas that have been less affected by the earthquakes. Others are taking advantage of government subsidised aid packages to help retain their employees until they can make long-term decisions about the future of their organisation. This paper is framed as a “report from the field” in order to provide insight into the early recovery scenario as it applies to organisations affected by the February 2011 earthquake. It is intended both to inform and facilitate discussion about how organisations can and should pursue recovery in Canterbury, and how organisations can become more resilient in the face of the next crisis.

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Identifying factors affecting resource availability for post-disaster reconstruction: a case study in China

Chang, Y., Wilkinson, S., Potangaroa, R., & Seville, E. (2011).

Construction Management and Economics, 29(1), 37-48

 
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Abstract

The availability of resources allows for the rapid and cost-effective delivery
of a construction project. For rebuilding programs after a disaster, the need for better
understanding of factors affecting resource availability and their potential impacts on
resourcing outcomes can be of crucial importance to desirable reconstruction
performance. This research attempts to empirically identify the critical factors affecting
resource availability for post-disaster reconstruction projects. The results show that the
top ten factors with significant influence on resource availability in post-disaster
situations are: legislation and policy, project schedule, competency of resourcing
manager, qualification of contractor, project resourcing plan, quantity of resources
required, resource procurement lead time, general economic environment and resource
transportation cost and method. This ranking hierarchy helps draw attention to areas in
which policy makers and reconstruction practitioners should make efforts to ensure
resource available for post-disaster rebuilding projects.

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Shaken but not Stirred: A University's Resilience in the Face of Adversity - the 4th September 2010 Earthquake

Erica Seville, Chris Hawker, Jacqui Lyttle.
University of Canterbury, April 2011.

 
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Introduction

On 4 September 2010, people in Canterbury were shaken from their beds by a major earthquake. This report tells the story of the University of Canterbury (UC), its staff and its students, as they rose to the many challenges presented by the earthquake. This report however, is intended to do more than just acknowledge their hard work and determination; it also critically reflects on the things that worked well and the aspects of the response that, in hindsight, could have been done better. Luckily major events such as this earthquake do not happen every day. UC has benefited from the many universities around the world that have shared their experiences of previous disasters. We hope that this report serves to pass forward the favour and enables others to benefit from the lessons that we have learnt from this event.

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Post-Disaster Organisational Recovery in a Central Business District Context:The 2010 & 2011 Canterbury Earthquakes

Joanne Stevenson, Erica Seville, Hlekiwe Kachali, John Vargo, Zachary Whitman
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2011/03

 
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Executive Summary

This report presents the findings from two studies on organisational resilience following the 4 September 2010 earthquake in Canterbury, New Zealand to answer three core research questions related to the recovery of organisations within the context of a Central Business District:
• How did the damage to and decisions of organisations and their neighbours within a Central Business District influence the recovery of an individual business?
• To what extent did pre-event characteristics of the CBD, and pre-existing plans for how the CBD would evolve into the future, influence the individual organisations’ resilience and the recovery process within the CBD as a whole?
• How do policies and plans implemented to manage recovery at the CBD level influence individual organisations’ recovery?

The first study surveyed organisations from across Canterbury in the aftermath of the 4 September earthquake, collecting data from 366 organisations about initial impacts, disruptions, and challenges faced by organisations, as well as information about organisational attributes, relationships and strategies that may have helped mitigate the impacts of the earthquake. A cross-section of geographic areas and industry sectors were strategically selected to take part in this survey to reflect various elements of the Canterbury economy. The results from this survey showed that organisations located in the Christchurch and Kaiapoi CBDs were more likely to close for a period of time following the disaster and stay closed for more days than organisations in other sectors. CBD organisations were also more likely to be disrupted by structural damage and more likely to relocate all or part of their organisations than most other sectors. Similarly, organisations in the two CBDs were more likely to experience revenue decreases following disasters. These findings suggest that CBD organisations face a different set of risks and may require additional support during the response and recovery phase and better mitigation and planning prior to an event. For example, CBD organisations had more issues with site access following a disaster, therefore they should emphasize backing up critical information in multiple locations and where possible plan for and facilitate staff relocation or the ability to work from home. The second study focused particularly on the progress of recovery for the Kaiapoi CBD since the earthquake. Although Kaiapoi suffered significantly from the 4 September earthquake, it did not experience a large amount of additional damage as a result of the 22 February 2011 earthquake. As a result, Kaiapoi is an interesting example of a recovering community in a unique position to revitalise and develop economic and organisational capacity. While recovery progress is difficult to quantify precisely, at the time of writing Kaiapoi was clearly further along in the recovery process than Christchurch. As such, Kaiapoi can potentially provide useful lessons to guide the recovery of Christchurch and other disaster-affected areas.

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Structural Engineers and Post Disaster Recovery: Lessons Learnt From Haiti

Potangaroa R.

Human Ecology Journal, 2011. Issue No. 24 Published by: Commonwealth Human Ecology Council (CHEC) Church House Newton Road London W2 5LS United Kingdom pg 35-39.

 
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Abstract
The Recovery of Canterbury's Organisations: A comparative analysis of the 4 September 2010, 22 February and 13 June 2011 earthquakes

Joanne Stevenson, John Vargo, Erica Seville, Hlekiwe Kachali, Amy McNaughton, Felicity Powell
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2011/04

 
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Executive Summary

The 4 September, 22 February, and 13 June earthquakes experienced in Canterbury, New Zealand would have been significant events individually. Together they present a complex and unprecedented challenge for Canterbury and New Zealand. The repetitive and protracted nature of these events has caused widespread building and infrastructure damage, strained organisations’ financial and human resources and challenged insurer and investor confidence. The impact of the earthquakes was even more damaging coming in the wake of the worst worldwide recession since the great depression of the 1930s. However, where there is disruption there is also opportunity. Businesses and other organisations will drive the physical, economic and social recovery of Canterbury, which will be a dynamic and long-term undertaking. Ongoing monitoring of the impacts, challenges and developments during the recovery is critical to maintaining momentum and making effective mid-course adjustments. This report provides a synthesis of research carried out by the Resilient Organisations (ResOrgs) Research Programme at the University of Canterbury and Recover Canterbury in collaboration with Opus Central Laboratories (part of Opus International Consultants). The report includes discussions on the general state of the economy as well as data from three surveys (two conducted by ResOrgs and one by Recover Canterbury) on business impacts of the earthquakes, population movements and related economic recovery issues.
This research and report offers two primary benefits:
1. Comparing results following the September, February and June earthquakes allows us to identify trends and points of differentiation in the impact of these three events on Canterbury organisations.
2. After analysing these and other data collected by Resilient Organisations and
Recover Canterbury, the authors have compiled several recommendations to
facilitate business and economic recovery.

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The Management of Portable Toilets in the Eastern Suburbs of Christchurch after the February 22, 2011 Earthquake

Potangaroa, R., Wilkinson, S., Zare, M., & Steinfort, P.

Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 2011, 2 (Special Issue - A Focus on the Canterbury Earthquakes), 39-48.

 
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Abstract

The extent of liquefaction in the eastern suburbs
of Christchurch (Aranui, Bexley, Avonside,
Avonhead and Dallington) from the February 22
2011 Earthquake resulted in extensive damage to
in-ground waste water pipe systems. This caused
a huge demand for portable toilets (or port-a-loos)
and companies were importing them from outside
Canterbury and in some instances from Australia.
However, because they were deemed “assets
of importance” under legislation, their allocation
had to be coordinated by Civil Defence and
Emergency Management (CDEM). Consequently,
companies supplying them had to ignore requests
from residents, businesses and rest homes; and
commitments to large events outside of the city
such as the Hamilton 400 V8 Supercars and the
Pasifika Festival in Auckland were impacted.
Frustrations started to show as neighbourhoods
questioned the equity of the port-a-loos distribution.
The Prime Minister was reported as reassuring
citizens in the eastern suburbs in the first week
of March that1
“a report about the distribution of
port-a-loos and chemical toilets shows allocation
has been fair. Key said he has asked Civil Defence
about the distribution process and where the toilets
been sent. He said there aren’t enough for the
scale of the event but that is quickly being rectified
and the need for toilets is being reassessed all the
time.” Nonetheless, there still remained a deep sense of frustration and exclusion over the equity
of the port-a-loos distribution.
This study took the simple approach of mapping where
those port-a-loos were on 11-12 March for several areas
in the eastern suburbs and this suggested that their
distribution was not equitable and was not well done.
It reviews the predictive tools available for estimating
damage to waste water pipes and asks the question
could this situation have been better planned so that
pot-a-loo locations could have been better prioritised?
And finally it reviews the integral roles of communication
and monitoring as part of disaster management strategy.
The impression from this study is that other New
Zealand urban centres could or would also be at risk
and that work is need to developed more rational
management approaches for disaster planning. 

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Organisational resilience and recovery from the 4 September 2010 Darfield earthquake: preliminary impact and organisational performance analysis

Whitman, Z., Stevenson, J. R., Kachali, H., Seville, E., Vargo, J., & Wilson, T. (2011).

Disasters, Accepted

 
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Abstract
Animal welfare impact following the 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake: a preliminary report

Glassey, S. and Wilson, T.M.

Australasian Journal of Trauma and Disaster Studies, 2011-2 (Special Issue: A Focus on the Canterbury Earthquake), 49-59.  

 
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Abstract

At 4.35am on Saturday 4 September 2010, a magnitude
7.1 earthquake struck near the township of Darfield
in Canterbury leading to widespread damage in
Christchurch and the wider central Canterbury region.
Though it was reported no lives were lost, that was
not entirely correct. Over 3,000 animals perished as a
result of the earthquake and 99% of these deaths would
have been avoidable if appropriate mitigation measures
had been in place. Deaths were predominantly due to
zoological vulnerability of birds in captive production
farms. Other problems included lack of provision of
animal welfare at evacuation centres, issues associated
with multiple lost and found pet services, evacuation
failure due to pet separation and stress impact on dairy
herds and associated milk production. The Canterbury
Earthquake has highlighted concerns over a lack of
animal emergency welfare planning and capacity in
New Zealand, an issue that is being progressed by
the National Animal Welfare Emergency Management
Group. As animal emergency management becomes
better understood by emergency management and
veterinary professionals, it is more likely that both
sectors will have greater demands placed upon them
by national guidelines and community expectations
to ensure provisions are made to afford protection of
animals in times of disaster. A subsequent and more
devastating earthquake struck the region on Monday 22
February 2011; this article however is primarily focused
on the events pertaining to the September 4 event

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Benchmarking the Resilience of Organisations

Amy Stephenson, University of Canterbury, PhD thesis 2011

 
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Abstract

Our world is more technologically advanced and interdependent, risks are increasingly shared across local, regional and national boundaries and we are more culturally diverse than ever before. As a result, communities are increasingly confronted with emergencies and crises which challenge their social and economic stability. To be resilient, communities rely on services and employment provided by organisations, to enable them to plan for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and crises. However organisational and community resilience are two sides of the same coin; if organisations are not prepared to respond to emergencies and crises, communities too are not prepared. Resilient organisations are also better poised to develop competitive advantage. However despite the potential business and performance rewards of becoming more resilient, organisations struggle to prioritise resilience and to allocate resources to resilience, which could be put to more immediate use. To enable organisations to invest in their resilience, the business case for resilience must be better than the case for new equipment or new staff. This thesis develops a methodology and survey tool for measuring and benchmarking organisational resilience. Previous qualitative case study research is reviewed and operationalised as a resilience measurement tool. The tool is tested on a random sample of Auckland organisations and factor analysis is used to further develop the instrument. The resilience benchmarking methodology is designed to guide organisations’ use of the resilience measurement tool and its incorporation into business-as-usual continuous improvement. Significant contributions of this thesis include a new model of organisational resilience, the resilience measurement tool, and the resilience benchmarking methodology. Together these outputs translate the concept of resilience for organisations and provide information on resilience strengths and weaknesses that enable them to proactively address their resilience and to develop a business case for resilience investment.

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Lifelines Performance and Management Following the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake, New Zealand: Highlights of Resilience

Sonia Giovinazzi, Thomas Wilson, Craig Davis, Daniel Bristow, Max Gallagher, Alistair Schofield, Marlene Villemure, John Eidinger, Alex Tang

Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 44, No. 4, December 2011

 
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Abstract
Crisis Strategic Planning for SMEs: Finding the Silver Lining

John Vargo and Erica Seville

International Journal of Production Research - Creating Resilient SMEs special issue, Vol 49, Issue 18, Sept 2011, pp 5619-5635.

 
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Abstract

The ability of business owners/managers to think strategically during the midst of a crisis is a key factor
in an organisation’s long term survival, but at present there is very little advice available on how to do
this most effectively.  To be resilient in times of crises, organisations need to navigate a set of apparent
contradictions that juxtapose effective planning with adaptability to changing circumstances including:
(1) have leaders able to inspire people with a sense of hope and direction whilst being grounded about
the situation they are in, (2) have an organisational culture that values disciplined planning whilst
fostering innovation, (3) plan and make decisions carefully and structured effectively yet be responsive
and bold, and (4) have teams able to recognise patterns and integrate information to make sense of a
chaotic situation, yet be alert to subtle changes as the situation evolves.  
In this paper we propose a model for crisis strategic planning to help organisations understand their
natural tendencies and how these affect the type of resilience the organisation is able to achieve.  The
paper also presents three case studies of small New Zealand organisations coping with the aftermath of
crisis to demonstrate how the model can be applied. 

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Preliminary Observations of the Impacts the 22 February Christchurch Earthquake on Organisations and the Economy: A Report from the Field (22 February - 22 March 2011)

Joanne Stevenson, Hlekiwe Kachali, Zachary Whitman, Erica Seville, John Vargo, Thomas Wilson
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Bulletin Vol. 44, No. 2, June 2011, pp65-76.

 
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Abstract

On 22 February 2011, Canterbury and its largest city Christchurch experienced its second major earthquake within
six months. The region is facing major economic and organisational challenges in the aftermath of these events.
Approximately 25% of all buildings in the Christchurch CBD have been ―red tagged‖ or deemed unsafe to enter.
The New Zealand Treasury estimates that the combined cost of the February earthquake and the September
earthquake is approximately NZ$15 billion[2]. This paper examines the national and regional economic climate
prior to the event, discusses the immediate economic implications of this event, and the challenges and
opportunities faced by organisations affected by this event. In order to facilitate recovery of the Christchurch
area, organisations must adjust to a new norm; finding ways not only to continue functioning, but to grow in the
months and years following these earthquakes. Some organisations relocated within days to areas that have been
less affected by the earthquakes. Others are taking advantage of government subsidised aid packages to help retain
their employees until they can make long-term decisions about the future of their organisation. This paper is
framed as a ―report from the field‖ in order to provide insight into the early recovery scenario as it applies to
organisations affected by the February 2011 earthquake. It is intended both to inform and facilitate discussion
about how organisations can and should pursue recovery in Canterbury, and how organisations can become more
resilient in the face of the next crisis

Download pre-print version of paper
Treatment of volcanic ash-contaminated surface waters through the optimisation of physical and chemical processes

White, J.; Stewart, C.; Wareham, D. and Wilson, T.
GNS Science Report SR 2011/35. 34 p.

 
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Procurement and Contractual Arrangements for Post-Disaster Reconstruction

Kelvin Zuo, University of Auckland, PhD thesis 2011.

 
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Abstract

Disaster reconstruction management requires a different response to ordinary construction. One of the key factors to consider is the development of an appropriate and efficient procurement framework for rebuilding following a disaster event. The major aim of this research is to review, analyze and recommend procurement and contractual arrangements for disaster reconstruction. Two major research methods are used to achieve the research objective, namely, literature review and case studies. The theoretical framework of various procurement paths, which comprises procurement systems, contractual models and standard contracts, is firstly identified and analyzed for construction projects under normal time. The characteristics and suitability of each procurement path are summarized at the end of the first part of the literature review. The theme of disaster reconstruction is introduced subsequently including different disaster reconstruction theories, relevant guidelines and regulations, contractual models for reconstruction in New Zealand and overseas. The suitability of procurement systems to post-disaster reconstruction situations is then examined in theory and it is found that the integrated and management-orientated procurement systems are more suitable to be used for reconstruction. Five case studies on reconstruction processes after natural disasters are carried out with particular focus on their procurement and contractual arrangements, time, cost, quality considerations, and relevant guidelines and regulations. These studies include the reconstruction after two recent New Zealand floods in 2004 and 2005, Indonesian Banda Aceh reconstruction after 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, 1998 Yangtze River Floods and 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake reconstructions in China. The case studies confirm the suitability of the desirable procurement paths for reconstruction identified in the literature review. Conclusions on the overall research results and consequent recommendations are made at the end of the thesis for practical application of the procurement paths identified in this research for reconstruction.

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Animal welfare impact following the 4 September 2010 Canterbury earthquake: a preliminary report

Glassey, S. and Wilson, T.M.

Australasian Journal of Trauma and Disaster Studies, 2011-2 (Special Issue: A Focus on the Canterbury Earthquake), 49-59.  

 
Read more
Abstract

At 4.35am on Saturday 4 September 2010, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck near the township of Darfield in Canterbury leading to widespread damage in Christchurch and the wider central Canterbury region. Though it was reported no lives were lost, that was not entirely correct. Over 3,000 animals perished as a result of the earthquake and 99% of these deaths would have been avoidable if appropriate mitigation measures had been in place. Deaths were predominantly due to zoological vulnerability of birds in captive production farms. Other problems included lack of provision of animal welfare at evacuation centres, issues associated with multiple lost and found pet services, evacuation failure due to pet separation and stress impact on dairy herds and associated milk production. The Canterbury Earthquake has highlighted concerns over a lack of animal emergency welfare planning and capacity in New Zealand, an issue that is being progressed by the National Animal Welfare Emergency Management Group. As animal emergency management becomes better understood by emergency management and veterinary professionals, it is more likely that both sectors will have greater demands placed upon them by national guidelines and community expectations to ensure provisions are made to afford protection of animals in times of disaster. A subsequent and more devastating earthquake struck the region on Monday 22 February 2011; this article however is primarily focused on the events pertaining to the September 4 event

Download pre-print version of paper
Lifelines Performance and Management Following the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake, New Zealand: Highlights of Resilience

Sonia Giovinazzi, Thomas Wilson, Craig Davis, Daniel Bristow, Max Gallagher, Alistair Schofield, Marlene Villemure, John Eidinger, Alex Tang

Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 44, No. 4, December 2011

 
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Abstract
*A Successful Christchurch Recovery: Articulating the vision and identifying tipping points.

In May 2011, the Resilient Organisations research programme held a two day Resilience Retreat high in the hills of Banks Peninsula to bring together a group of thought-leaders to share and debate resilience issues and strategies related to the Christchurch recovery. One of our sessions set the participants the challenge of articulating the vision for two key elements of the overall recovery: the Christchurch rebuild and the economic recovery.
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2011/02

 
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Abstract

Couldn't find any summary or extract

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Organisational resilience and recovery from the 4 September 2010 Darfield earthquake: preliminary impact and organisational performance analysis

Whitman, Z., Stevenson, J. R., Kachali, H., Seville, E., Vargo, J., & Wilson, T. (2011).

Disasters, Accepted

 
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Infrastructure impacts, management and adaptations to eruptions at Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador, 1999-2010

Sword-Daniels, V.; Wardman, J.; Stewart, C.; Wilson, T.; Johnston, D. and Rossetto, T.
GNS Science Report 2011/24. 73 p.

 
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Crisis Strategic Planning for SMEs: Finding the Silver Lining

John Vargo and Erica Seville

International Journal of Production Research - Creating Resilient SMEs special issue, Vol 49, Issue 18, Sept 2011, pp 5619-5635.

 
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Abstract

The ability of business owners/managers to think strategically during the midst of a crisis is a key factor in an organisation’s long term survival, but at present there is very little advice available on how to do this most effectively.  To be resilient in times of crises, organisations need to navigate a set of apparent contradictions that juxtapose effective planning with adaptability to changing circumstances including: (1) have leaders able to inspire people with a sense of hope and direction whilst being grounded about the situation they are in, (2) have an organisational culture that values disciplined planning whilst fostering innovation, (3) plan and make decisions carefully and structured effectively yet be responsive and bold, and (4) have teams able to recognise patterns and integrate information to make sense of a chaotic situation, yet be alert to subtle changes as the situation evolves.   In this paper we propose a model for crisis strategic planning to help organisations understand their natural tendencies and how these affect the type of resilience the organisation is able to achieve.  The paper also presents three case studies of small New Zealand organisations coping with the aftermath of crisis to demonstrate how the model can be applied.

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Disaster Waste Management: A review Article

Charlotte Brown, Mark Milke, Erica Seville

Waste Management, Vol 30 (2011) 1085-1098.

 
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Abstract

Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems

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Preliminary Observations of the Impacts the 22 February Christchurch Earthquake on Organisations and the Economy: A Report from the Field (22 February - 22 March 2011)

Joanne Stevenson, Hlekiwe Kachali, Zachary Whitman, Erica Seville, John Vargo, Thomas Wilson
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Bulletin Vol. 44, No. 2, June 2011, pp65-76.

 
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Abstract

On 22 February 2011, Canterbury and its largest city Christchurch experienced its second major earthquake within six months. The region is facing major economic and organisational challenges in the aftermath of these events. Approximately 25% of all buildings in the Christchurch CBD have been ―red tagged‖ or deemed unsafe to enter. The New Zealand Treasury estimates that the combined cost of the February earthquake and the September earthquake is approximately NZ$15 billion[2]. This paper examines the national and regional economic climate prior to the event, discusses the immediate economic implications of this event, and the challenges and opportunities faced by organisations affected by this event. In order to facilitate recovery of the Christchurch area, organisations must adjust to a new norm; finding ways not only to continue functioning, but to grow in the months and years following these earthquakes. Some organisations relocated within days to areas that have been less affected by the earthquakes. Others are taking advantage of government subsidised aid packages to help retain their employees until they can make long-term decisions about the future of their organisation. This paper is framed as a ―report from the field‖ in order to provide insight into the early recovery scenario as it applies to organisations affected by the February 2011 earthquake. It is intended both to inform and facilitate discussion about how organisations can and should pursue recovery in Canterbury, and how organisations can become more resilient in the face of the next crisis.

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Disaster Waste Management: A review Article

Charlotte Brown, Mark Milke, Erica Seville

Waste Management, Vol 30 (2011) 1085-1098.

 
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Abstract

Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste
can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and
recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health
impacts and can affect the overall recovery process.
This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The
main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated
case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites,
recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management
options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness
of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management
programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management
programmes.
It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a
basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research
will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems.

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2010

An Examination of Improvements Required to Legislative Provisions for Post-Disaster Reconstruction in New Zealand

James Olabode Bamidele Rotimi, University of Canterbury, PhD thesis 2010

 
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Abstract

Previous disaster management studies allude to the problems of coordination and the difficulties that may be associated with the implementation of recovery programmes in New Zealand. These studies have also indicated opportunities for improving the current recovery and reconstruction framework in advance of a major disaster. They have shown that much existing legislation were not drafted to cope with wide-scale devastations and were not developed to operate under the conditions that will inevitably prevail in the aftermath of a severe disaster. This thesis therefore explores improvements that could be made to legislative provisions so that they facilitate large-scale recovery management in New Zealand. Three legislative documents are in view: Civil Defence Emergency Management (CDEM) Act, Resource Management Act (RMA) and Building Act (BA). The research investigations involved qualitative research methodology using multi-methods to determine the practical implication of implementing current reconstruction arrangement under these legislative documents. The methods employed include: interviews, document analysis, focus group study, surveys, and the use of subject matter experts for research verification. Results show that the three legislative documents may become sources of vulnerability in post disaster reconstruction because of their influence on the timely achievement of recovery objectives. The impediments posed by these legislative documents are mainly in the form of procedural constraints; ambiguities in rights and responsibilities for recovery management; and deficiencies in the intents and purposes of the legislative documents. More general results show that pre-planning the management of disaster resources; and collaborative arrangements for response and recovery programmes are a pre-cursor to effective and efficient management of reconstruction in New Zealand.
The research concludes by providing useful recommendations that are specific to the three legislative documents and other general recommendations. It is hoped the implementation of these recommendations could improve the robustness of the current reconstruction framework so that it is able to cater for the complex needs of rebuilding for resilience in New Zealand.

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Resourcing for post-disaster reconstruction: A longitudinal case study following the earthquake in China

Yan Chang, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville.
In Reconstructing for Resilience: Strategies for building sustainable communities after a disaster. Edited by D. Amaratunga and R. Haigh, London, Wiley-Blackwell. (2010).

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Abstract
Discussion paper: Should Waste Management be Considered a Lifeline in New Zealand?

Charlotte Brown, Mark Milke, Erica Seville
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2010/01.

 
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Executive Summary

Lifelines (also referred to as Critical Infrastructure) provide the essential services that support
the life of our community. Maintaining provision of these services in an emergency response
situation is critical to the recovery of a community.
In New Zealand regional lifeline groups have been established to promote planning, resource
sharing and coordination between lifeline service providers. In addition to this, New Zealand
emergency law has provision for certain designated Lifeline Utilities to act as necessary to restore services in an emergency situation. However, solid waste management is not included in either the planning process nor is it provided for under the emergency legislation. A qualitative assessment of the importance of waste management to a community recovery effort and semi quantitative assessment on the impact of waste management on other lifeline provisions has been carried out. In a recovery, it is shown that waste management has the potential to pose health and safety hazards such as disease and environmental pollution. Waste management is also shown to be important to the provision of many lifelines. Given this importance and dependence, great benefit would be gained from including waste management activities in lifeline planning and coordination to facilitate more effective resource planning and prioritisation. From a legal perspective, the complexity of the waste management system would make it difficult to legislate as a Lifeline Utility. Not only are there multiple components to a solid waste system (disposal, treatment, recycling and collection), pre-disaster solid waste capacities would need to be significantly augmented to cater for the disaster generated waste and often this would entail the operation of organisations not normally involved in solid waste management. However, there would be benefits in providing legislation to require and give regulatory flexibility to pre-disaster solid waste operators and facilities to restore predisaster services following a disaster. This allowance would facilitate the first stage of the clean-up effort before an integrated disaster waste management system could be implemented.

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Interpreting resourcing bottlenecks of post-Wenchuan earthquake reconstruction in China

Yan Chang, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville.
International Journal of Strategic Property Management 14: 314-331, 2010.

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Abstract

Post-disaster reconstruction is likely to suffer resource shortages and supply disruptions.
The devastating Wenchuan earthquake on 12 May 2008 in China served as a typical
example. After the catastrophe, resource problems such as price escalation and market inflation
posed a significant challenge to Chinese policy makers and reconstruction team. Based on field
surveys, the study attempts to examine the Wenchuan earthquake reconstruction practice and
identify the most vulnerable resources along with their resourcing impediments inherent in
the reconstruction process. The research findings show that at the early stage of reconstruction,
labour and materials such as brick, cement, steel and aggregate were the most needed
yet vulnerable resources. Procurement of these resources was mainly hindered by (1) reconstruction
schedule and speed, (2) the impacts of the 2008 global financial crisis, (3) inadequate
local transportation capacity, (4) dysfunction of the construction market, and (5) insufficient
engagement of local construction industry. While the interventions and measures Chinese government
adopted after the earthquake seem to be able to deal with resourcing bottlenecks in
a short time; different efforts to reduce the impacts of these five areas are needed with a view
to expediting longer-term disaster recovery and reconstruction

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Benchmark Resilience: A study of the resilience of organisations in the Auckland Region

Amy Stephenson, Erica Seville, John Vargo, Derek Roger
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2010/03b - updated version.

 
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Executive Summary

The purpose of this report is to provide an interim summary of the results of the
Benchmark Resilience research project for the Auckland region. A more detailed
analysis of the results will be included in Amy Stephenson’s final Ph.D. thesis which is due for completion in August 2010. This thesis will be made available on our website once it has been examined. Organisational and community resilience are two sides of the same coin; without resilient organisations a community will be less resilient. Organisational resilience is the ability of an organisation to survive, and potentially even thrive in an environment of change and uncertainty. Resilient organisations are able to monitor their internal and external environment for changes which helps them to continuously adapt before the case for change becomes critical to their survival and continuity.
Despite the benefits of being resilient, organisations often struggle to prioritise resilience and to link resilience to disaster with resilience during business as usual. The purpose of this research is to develop a web-based organisational resilience measurement and benchmarking tool which can provide organisations with information to help make a business case for resilience. Initial results from this research indicate a positive relationship between organisational resilience and indicators of business performance. In total 249 individuals from 68 Auckland organisations took part in this research. Encouraging organisations to take part was a significant challenge, particularly given that a random selection of organisations from throughout the region were invited to participate. Targeting organisations with an existing interest in resilience, or only sampling larger organisations likely to have a dedicated risk manager, would have probably generated a higher response rate. However, it would not have been a representative sample of the organisational community that exists within the Auckland region, as was sought for this study. The most common reasons for not taking part in the research included not having enough time or resources, already struggling to survive, and a feeling that their organisation was too small or unimportant to invest in its resilience. This suggests that many of the organisations that were contacted struggle to address long term issues and have little redundancy or capacity to absorb extra workloads. Through this research, a new model of organisational resilience has been developed, consisting of 13 indicators grouped into 2 dimensions; planning and adaptive capacity. Descriptors for each of the resilience indicators are given in the appendix of this report. The Benchmark Resilience tool provides organisations with a tool for evaluating their resilience strengths and weaknesses for each of these indicators, and for benchmarking how they compare to other organisations of a similar size or in a similar sector.

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Preliminary Results from Organisational Resilience and Recovery Study December 2010

Hlekiwe Kachali, Joanne Stevenson, Zach Whitman, Erica Seville, John Vargo, Tom Wilson
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2010/05

 
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Introduction

The Resilient Organisations Research Programme and the University of Canterbury
are undertaking a longitudinal study to examine the resilience and recovery of
organisations within the Canterbury region following the 4 September Canterbury
earthquake. The preliminary data suggest the physical, economic and social effects of the earthquake were varied across industry sectors within Canterbury. These preliminary results catalogue organisations’ perceptions of the:
• disruptions to their ability to do business
• challenges faced in the aftermath of the earthquake
• factors that have helped mitigate the effects of the earthquake
• revenue changes and projections for the duration of this change
• financing options for recovery

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Resourcing for post-disaster reconstruction: A longitudinal case study following the earthquake in China

Yan Chang, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville
In Book Reconstructing for Resilience: Strategies for building sustainable communities after a disaster. Edited by D. Amaratunga and R. Haigh, London, Wiley-Blackwell. (2010)

 
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Abstract
Interpreting resourcing bottlenecks of post-Wenchuan earthquake reconstruction in China

Yan Chang, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville
International Journal of Strategic Property Management 14: 314-331, 2010

 
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Abstract

Post-disaster reconstruction is likely to suffer resource shortages and supply disruptions.
The devastating Wenchuan earthquake on 12 May 2008 in China served as a typical
example. After the catastrophe, resource problems such as price escalation and market inflation
posed a significant challenge to Chinese policy makers and reconstruction team. Based on field
surveys, the study attempts to examine the Wenchuan earthquake reconstruction practice and
identify the most vulnerable resources along with their resourcing impediments inherent in
the reconstruction process. The research findings show that at the early stage of reconstruction,
labour and materials such as brick, cement, steel and aggregate were the most needed
yet vulnerable resources. Procurement of these resources was mainly hindered by (1) reconstruction
schedule and speed, (2) the impacts of the 2008 global financial crisis, (3) inadequate
local transportation capacity, (4) dysfunction of the construction market, and (5) insufficient
engagement of local construction industry. While the interventions and measures Chinese government
adopted after the earthquake seem to be able to deal with resourcing bottlenecks in
a short time; different efforts to reduce the impacts of these five areas are needed with a view
to expediting longer-term disaster recovery and reconstruction.

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Resourcing challenges for post-disaster housing reconstruction: A comparative analysis

Yan Chang, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville
Building Research and Information 38(3): 247-264, 2010

 
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Abstract

Post-disaster reconstruction, if not well planned and
implemented, can create further vulnerabilities in a disaster-affected
community. According to Schilderman
(2004, p. 415), whilst the number of hazard events
does not appear to be increasing greatly, their impact
on people is increasing. The underlying implications
of disasters for longer-term reconstruction are not
fully understood by policy-makers and recovery practitioners.
After a large-scale disaster, housing reconstruction
projects are susceptible to numerous
resourcing bottlenecks inherent in post-disaster circumstances,
such as resource shortages (Steinberg,
2007), price escalation (Nazara and Resosudarmo,
2007), and supply chain disruption (Zuo et al.,
2009), which significantly impede the reconstruction
process in disaster-affected countries. As Jayasuriya
et al. (2005) observed in Sri Lanka, the impacts of
the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami intensified resource
shortage, fuelled inflation, constrained government’s
fiscal capacity, and adversely affected housing
reconstruction

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Waste management as a 'Lifeline'? A New Zealand case study analysis

Charlotte Brown, Mark Milke, Erica Seville
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 2010. Vol. 1 No. 2, pp.192-206.

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Abstract

Lifelines (also referred to as Critical Infrastructure) are referred to here as the
essential infrastructure and services that support the life of our community.
In a disaster response and recovery situation, provision of Lifelines, is
essential. New Zealand has several mechanisms to improve the responses of
lifeline service providers in a disaster situation, including pre-event planning
and coordination groups and legislative provisions for timely response in an
emergency. Currently waste management is not formally included in either
the coordination process or the legislative provisions for Lifelines. This paper
addresses whether or not waste management should be included in these.

Download pre-print version of paper
Resourcing for post-disaster reconstruction: A longitudinal case study following the earthquake in China

Yan Chang, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville
In Book Reconstructing for Resilience: Strategies for building sustainable communities after a disaster. Edited by D. Amaratunga and R. Haigh, London, Wiley-Blackwell. (2010)

 
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Abstract
A Diagnosis of State Highway Organisations’ Decision-Making during Extreme Emergency Events

Andre Dantas, Sonia Giovinazzi, Erica Seville, Frederico Ferreira
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2010/02.

 
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Executive Summary

This report introduces the development and application of a method to analyse the
decision making process of New Zealand’s State Highway Organisations (SHO) during extreme events. Building upon our previous research efforts (Dantas et al, 2007 and Ferreira et al, 2008), the aim is to obtain an unbiased and complete overview of the strengths and weaknesses of the current decision making. The report proposes procedures and metrics to analyse the quality of decision making, based upon the study of theoretical and practical concepts of decision making processes.
The method used to analyse the quality of decision making was applied to 3 real events and 4 exercises, which have been observed since 2005. In addition to the real events, the exercises provide a realistic representation of the decision making processes likely to be implemented in the occurrence of extreme events and conditions. Above all, the research team’s assessment is that the exercises represented the most likely interaction between MCDEM / Regional Civil Defence / Lifeline groups and NZTA at national, regional and local levels. The results of the Quality of Decision Making (QDM) analysis indicate that SHO are capable, experienced and competent in dealing with major disruptions or crises that may affect the State Highway Network of New Zealand. SHO have achieved Good and Fair levels of resilience in terms of decision making activities during emergency response events and exercises.
Depending on the event or exercise, this means that SHO can:
- Be mostly or partially coordinated;
- Be mostly or limitedly adaptable;
- Be effective or partially effective in most circumstances;
- Provide comprehensive or limited solutions delivery; and
- Provide comprehensive or limited feedback to involved organisations.
Our analysis revealed that SHO performed slightly better in real events than in simulation exercises. The differences in performance are mostly due to the fact that exercises have exposed more junior staff to situations which they do not yet fully understand and/or have the required experience to deploy and coordinate resources allocation.
SHO’s major strengths were mostly observed in terms of their ability to perceive, assess and act based on outstanding experience and technical skills. These skills were most often derived from extensive networking (informal and professional) with key individuals involved in emergency response. Senior SHO staff demonstrated high levels of situation awareness and leadership in various situations. SHO’s major weaknesses in terms of decision making during an emergency response are mostly related to resource allocation and information sharing. Most decisions were made without clear and / or rationalised/ structured processes supporting them. Based on this report’s findings a series of recommended initiatives are listed. They comprise:
• An extensive program to address the observed vulnerabilities;
• A continuous program of event and exercise observation;
• Creation of a decision making vulnerability matrix for use in exercise and event
debriefs;
• Training package for decision making simulations;
• Standardisation of symbols for maps generated during emergencies;
• A GIS-based information sharing framework; and
• Use of GIS to support simulation exercises.

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Resourcing for a resilient post-disaster reconstruction environment

Yan Chang, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment 1(1): 65-83, 2010.

 
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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to understand the resourcing issues that concern the
provision of resources required for reconstruction projects after a disaster and to enable them to be integrated into a holistic planning process.

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Dynamic Response and Recovery Tool for Emergency Response within State Highway Organisations in New Zealand

Frederico Ferreira, University of Canterbury, PhD thesis 2010

 
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Abstract

This thesis reports the research efforts conducted in order to develop the Dynamic Response Recovery Tool. The DRRT was developed as a decision support tool under a holistic approach considering both emergency management research and transportation studies. The proposed system was assessed by a series of case studies in order to identify its efficiency and suitability for roading organisations. Knowledge developed from two novel research approaches are comprehensively described throughout the thesis. Initially, we report on the observation of three emergency exercises and two real events in New Zealand. This set of activities indicated the complex and dynamic environment in which emergency management takes place as well as organisational settings and management structures implemented to better respond and recover from disasters events. Additionally, a secondary approach was designed to overcome limitations identified in the observation method. In this context, a game-based scenario simulation was developed and conducted with twelve participants. With a focus in resource deployment decisions during emergencies, the game simulated an earthquake scenario in which participants had to allocate physical resources to fix damage created in a road network. Simulations indicated that Naturalistic Decision-making processes were used to respond to the scenario. Thus, resource allocation followed planning priorities defined previously the simulation, which further considered individual experiences and knowledge. Taking advantage from the findings achieved and knowledge developed by the observations and game simulations, the DRRT was designed using the conceptual background identified in the literature review. The DRRT was conceptualised as a logistics sub-system as part of the broad field of Disaster Management. In particular, the DRRT was geared towards supporting decision-making by providing procedural recommendations and identifying optimum physical deployment strategies. In order to assess the proposed system, an Information Technology application was built according to the DRRT’s specifications. A series of eleven individual and three group simulations was performed in order to assess the DRRT. Data collected through the application indicated that the DRRT enhanced decision-making during extreme events. In specific, case study participants using the system at greater levels achieved better decision-making accuracy than those disregarding completely or partially the system. Case studies also indicated that emergency management knowledge was represented by the application and its logistics model provided participants with vital information to optimise resource allocation.

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Disaster Waste Management Case Study: 2009 Victorian Bushfires, Australia

Charlotte Brown, Mark Milke, Erica Seville
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2010/04

 
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Executive Summary

The 2009 Black Saturday Bushfires in Victoria, Australia killed 173 people and affected 430,000 hectares of land. Before communities could begin to rebuild the tonnes of burnt and potentially hazardous debris had to be removed. This report reviews the overall waste management process following the bushfires. In particular the report focuses on the State and Commonwealth sponsored demolition and debris removal contract. Data for the analysis is based on a literature review and interviews with professionals and community members involved with or affected by the bushfire waste.
Overall the demolition and debris removal response to the Bushfires was successful. The government sponsored clean-up was hailed as the best post-bushfire government initiative. Aspects of the clean-up programme such as the opportunity to salvage personal items before demolition were highly successful. Although there had been little prior planning for how to deal with disaster waste on this scale, there was a collective response to move with urgency towards a common goal: to remove public health hazards and to get communities into the rebuilding process as quickly as possible.

To meet this goal, five key decisions were made:
• Establishment of VBRRA.
• Single waste classification for waste handling procedures.
• Decision for government to fund the demolition and debris removal on private
property.
• Letting a single contract for the above works.
• Construction of a new landfill cell.

For each decision, decision makers needed to balance the environmental, economic and social drivers to meet the above goal. For example a decision was made to stream-line standard peace-time processes such as asbestos handling and disposal in order to remove the hazard quickly and facilitate the rebuild. With limited time to assess possible impacts and outcomes for decisions there was inevitably an elevated risk due to uncertainty associated with the decision-making. The legal frameworks used to meet the debris and demolition requirements were simple and effective. The organisational structures in this event were unplanned for but collaborative and efficient. The major deficiency identified was the lack of ‘peace-time’ solid waste managers involved in the decision-making process on the waste management strategy. The reactive response to the Bushfire clean-up was largely successful, however, the response would have benefited from greater prior planning. Planning is necessary to give decision-makers the tools and information necessary to make good decisions after any given event. Flexible organisational, legal and financial frameworks and suitable impact assessment techniques are essential. For example pre-determining the extent of public financial assistance to the public, relative to disaster impact, and providing prosecution protection for decision- makers, would help to reduce pressure on decision-makers at the time of the disaster. With these in place, decisions can be made more efficiently and in a well coordinated and consultative manner. Many of the delays in the Bushfire response could have been avoided if pre-event planning, focussed around anticipated decision points, had been carried out. Communication at all levels is the key component of this entire process. It is hoped that those involved in waste management and other disaster responses take the lessons learned here and develop effective plans and strategies for responses in the future.

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*Resourcing challenges for post-disaster housing reconstruction: A comparative analysis

Yan Chang, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville
Building Research and Information 38(3): 247-264, 2010

 
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Abstract

couldn't find an abstract for this one 

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Waste management as a 'Lifeline'? A New Zealand case study analysis

Charlotte Brown, Mark Milke, Erica Seville
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 2010. Vol. 1 No. 2, pp.192-206.

 
Read more
Abstract

Lifelines (also referred to as Critical Infrastructure) are referred to here as the
essential infrastructure and services that support the life of our community.
In a disaster response and recovery situation, provision of Lifelines, is
essential. New Zealand has several mechanisms to improve the responses of
lifeline service providers in a disaster situation, including pre-event planning
and coordination groups and legislative provisions for timely response in an
emergency. Currently waste management is not formally included in either
the coordination process or the legislative provisions for Lifelines. This paper
addresses whether or not waste management should be included in these.

Download pre-print version of paper
Donor-driven resource procurement for post-disaster reconstruction: Constraints and actions

Yan Chang, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Erica Seville
Habitat International 35(2): 199-205, 2010.

 
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Abstract

Post-disaster reconstruction suffers bottlenecks and challenges due to the inadequacies of resource procurement. In the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, difficulties in acquiring resources compromised donors’ efforts in achieving a successful recovery. By drawing on in-field observations and surveys in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, this paper identifies the key factors that obstructed the process for NGOs to procure building materials and labour. The result demonstrates that donor-driven resource procurement was primarily impeded by (1) NGO-related factors including: NGOs competency of resource procurement and competition for resources among aid agencies; (2) external hurdles in NGOs implementing environment including: low local transportation and supply capacity, incompetence of contractor, and insufficient government support; and (3) community-related factors including: local housing culture and lack of community influence and participation. Continuous capacity building in NGOs, proactive resource assessment and planning, strengthening relationships with local community and institutions, together with a collaborative resourcing approach are likely to address resourcing constraints faced by NGOs when rebuilding communities following a disaster.

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Measuring and Comparing Organisational Resilience in Auckland

Amy Stephenson, John Vargo, Erica Seville
The Australian Journal of Emergency Managment, Volume 25, No 2, pp 27 - 32 2010

 
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Abstract

Organisations often find it difficult to demonstrate the value added by emergency management and business continuity programs, and their progress towards becoming ‘more resilient’. This is partly because these programs are compared to profit-driven activities for which there are metrics for evaluating whether or not they have produced financial growth. Resilience however, focuses on social and cultural factors within organisations which contribute to the organisations’ ability to survive, and potentially even thrive, in times of crisis. The effectiveness and value of programs to build resilience are much more difficult to measure. This paper presents the initial results of a web-based survey tool developed to address this gap and measure and compare organisational resilience. The tool enables organisations to identify resilience strengths and weaknesses and evaluate resilience management programs. In total 249 individuals representing 68 organisations in Auckland, New Zealand took part in the study. The results are discussed in terms of the resilience of the community of organisations in Auckland, the individual industry sectors that were represented, and the individual organisations that took part.

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Organizational Operations Planning and Decision-Making During Extreme Events: The New Zealand State Highway Organizations Case

Fred Ferreira, Andre Dantas, Erica Seville, Sonia Giovinazzi
89th TRB Annual Meeting: Investing in Our Transportation Future – BOLD Ideas to Meet BIG Challenges.Washington, D.C., January 10-14, 2010. (POSTER - http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/poster-ferreira_dantas_seville_giovinazzi_trb-paper_10-3010.pdf)
(PAPER - http://resorgs.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/ferreira_dantas_seville_giovinazzi_trb-paper_10-3010-final.pdf)

 
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Abstract

Operations planning and decision-making research for emergency management have increased in both academia and industry due to catastrophic events that have occurred in the past two decades. Recovery and reconstruction are intrinsically dependent on events’ characteristics and how planning, preparation and response are performed. Numerous transportation research have already focused on mathematical optimization, network reliability, risk management, and decision-making. Findings are still to be combined into common frameworks so better understanding of decision-making during emergency events can be achieved by the transportation community. This paper presents an academic approach to analyze extreme event decision-making within roading organizations using data from practical experiences. An emergency exercise observation and game simulation data collection method as well as a data analysis framework are proposed to study extreme event decision-making. A series of case studies were conducted by rigorously observing seven emergency exercises and simulating twelve game-based scenarios at several New Zealand roading organizations. Data collected during such experiences have proven the applicability of the framework, supporting two major findings: i) Extreme event decision-making is dependent on previous planning and experiences, confirming Naturalistic Decision-making models; and ii) Emergency response and recovery can be associated with two time frames (short and long terms objectives).

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Benchmarking the readiness of road controlling authorities to meet their obligations under the Civil Defence and Emergency Management (CDEM) Act 2002

A. Dantas and S. Giovinazzi
New Zealand Transport Agency research report 409 2010/10

 
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Abstract

This research develops an assessment tool and provides initial findings of whether RCAs are meeting their obligations under the Civil Defence and Emergency Management (CDEM) Act 2002, which states that the road network, among the other lifelines utilities, should be able to 'function to the fullest possible extent during and after an emergency'. A self-assessment benchmarking tool was developed and implemented in order to allow road controlling authorities (RCAs) to evaluate themselves and develop plans for improving their emergency response and recovery planning arrangements. Based on our study of the CDEM Act 2002, we conceptualised a multi-criteria assessment, which included three main expectations in terms of meeting the CDEM Act 2002 requirements. The self-assessment tool was applied to a case study, which gathered 26 valid responses from participant RCAs. The results revealed that most of the participant RCAs met the requirements of the CDEM Act 2002. These results were presented to the roading industry and their feedback was that the benchmarking framework and the self-assessment tool should be incorporated into RCA practice. It is recommended that subsequent work be conducted in terms of developing auditing schemes that verify whether the RCAs have evidence that supports their selfassessment.

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2004-2009

Resilience Retreat: Current and future resilience issues

Erica Seville, Tony Fenwick, Dave Brunsdon, Dean Myburgh, Sonia Giovinazzi, John Vargo
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2009/05.

 
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Executive Summary

In February 2009, the Resilient Organisations research programme held a three day ‘Resilience Retreat’ at Flock Hill, Canterbury. Industry guests and others from Australia and New Zealand joined the retreat. The purpose was to promote discussion about what resilience is and how to achieve it, discuss recent research and identify areas of future research need.

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Extreme Events Decision Making in Transport Networks: A Holistic Approach Using Emergency Scenarios and Decision Making Theory

Fred Ferreira, Andre Dantas, Erica Seville, Sonia Giovinazzi
Proceedings of the 8th EASTS Conference: Enhancing Transportation Infrastructure and Services in Rapid Regional Growth. 16th to 19th November 2009, Surabaya, Indonesia.

 
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Abstract

This paper proposes a novel method to analyse decision-making during extreme
events. The method is based on Decision-making Theory and aims at understanding how emergency managers make decisions during disasters. A data collection framework and an analysis method were conceptualized to capture participant’s behaviour, perception and understanding throughout a game-board simulation exercise, which emulates an earthquake disaster scenario affecting transport systems. The method evaluates the participant’s actions in order to identify decision-making patterns, strengths and weaknesses. A set of case studies has shown two typical patterns, namely: a) Support immediate rescue; b) Support lifelines recovery. Good decision-making practices regard to objective-oriented decision making, understanding of conflicting priorities and appropriate resource management. Weaknesses are associated with comprehending relationships between community/environment and projecting future scenarios. Overall, the case study’s results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method to analyse decision making during disasters.

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Livestock Evacuation Or Not: An Emergency Response Assessment of Natural Disasters

Tom Wilson, Andre Dantas, Jim Cole
Proceedings of the 8th EASTS Conference: Enhancing Transportation Infrastructure and Services in Rapid Regional Growth. 16th to 19th November 2009, Surabaya, Indonesia.

 
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Abstract
Legislation for effective post-disaster reconstruction

James Rotimi, Suzanne Wilkinson, Kelvin Zuo and Dean Myburgh
International Journal of Strategic Property Management. 2009. Vol.13 No.2, pp. 143-152

 
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Abstract

New Zealand is vulnerable to natural disasters. When disasters occur, the effects
can be devastating on the built environment. As one aspect of a major programme of research in New Zealand, the authors address the recovery issue in terms of how legislation either facilitates or hinders reconstruction. The results of a survey to building control offi cers and other disaster practitioners in New Zealand on the application of the Building Act 2004 post-disaster are presented in this paper. There are indications that the New Zealand Building Act 2004 will not be supportive or enabling in post-disaster reconstruction environments, particularly in large-scale disaster events. Key problems found were procedural constraints as a result of high consenting standards and logistic considerations. The desire is to create the best possible conditions that will encourage rapid rebuilding of lives and communities after large-scale disasters in New Zealand and that can only be done within a supportive legislative environment.

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A project management perspective in achieving a sustainable supply chain for timber procurement in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Kelvin Zuo, Regan Potangaroa, Suzanne Wilkinson, James Rotimi
International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2009, pp. 386-400

 
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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to explore the alternative procurement procedures that will address
the complexity of issues surrounding timber procurement for housing reconstruction after the Tsunami
in Banda Aceh. It reviews construction supply chain management (SCM) and procurement philosophies
with a project management (PM) perspective to facilitate the logistics of post-disaster reconstruction.

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Resource Management Act: Simplifying and Streamlining Amendment Bill

Submission prepared by Resilient Organisations, 2009

 
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Abstract

Resilient Organisations is in support of the intent of this Amendment Bill. A simplified and streamlined framework for considering resource management decisions will be of particular importance in a post-disaster environment, when the sheer volume and complex nature of consent applications are likely to overwhelm current arrangements.
We therefore make specific suggestions under some of the themes that have been
identified by the Ministry for Environment.

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*Empowerment and Capacity Building: Recovery Lessons from An Earthquake in China

Yan Chang, Regan Potangaroa, Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville and Kelvin Zuo
Tephra, Vol 22 pp 38 - 41. 2009. Community Resilience Special Issue

 
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Abstract

No Abstract found 

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Reducing the Impact of Organisational Silos on Resilience

Tony Fenwick, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2009/01. (PDF, 330kB)

 
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Abstract

Organisations need to perform effectively if they are to meet societal goals and expectations. This is especially important when adverse events arise, whatever the cause. Silos are organisational units where there is a breakdown in communication, co-operation and co-ordination with external parties. Silos can arise within organisations, a result of silo mentality. Or organisations themselves can become siloed if they unduly limit their connections with other organisations. Silos are often detrimental to the resilience of organisations and communities. Two definitions of resilience are suggested; one based on New Zealand research undertaken within the Resilient Organisations Research Programme and another from the UK that addresses resilience at both organisational and national levels. There is a need to improve the way that we manage silos in the interests of organisational and community resilience. How silos arise and what can be done about them to promote resilience is the topic of this report. Good internal management practices, together with bridge-building between organisations to improve collaboration, appear to be particular needs. Specific steps need to be taken where private incentives fall short of delivering all of the community’s resilience requirements. This report concludes by suggesting some points that need to be recognised to reduce the impact of silos on resilience.

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*Resilience: Great concept but what does it mean for organisations?

Erica Seville
Tephra, Vol 22 pp 9 - 15. 2009. Community Resilience Special Issue

 
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Abstract

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*Modelling livestock evacuation following a volcanic eruption: an example from Taranaki volcano, New Zealand

Thomas Wilson, Andre Dantas, Jim Cole
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 2009, Vol. 52:99–110

 
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Abstract

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*Resilience: Great Concept but What Does it Mean? Briefing Paper

Erica Seville
Council on Competitiveness - Risk Intelligence and Resilience Workshop,
November 2008, Wilmington, USA.

 
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Identifying Resilience in those Affected by the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

Regan Potangaroa, Menjun Wang, and Yan Chang,
Engineering Management Forum 2008. Erduosi, China

 
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Abstract

Risk is often mathematically described as Risk= Hazard x Vulnerability with the hazard component being largely the technically related aspects and the vulnerability being the more social aspects. The risk predictions from such a relationship were not being realized in disasters and it was noted that the adaptive ability of those affected by disasters significantly reduced the disaster’s impact. Researchers have been keen to understand the role of this resilience as it had the promise of gains in terms of disaster response that were more accessible and cost effective then those commonly suggested for “hazard” and “vulnerability”. However, the measurement of resilience is difficult, largely because of it’s time dependent nature. Quality of Life (QoL) models have been used previously in disasters but not to specifically measure resilience. This papers seeks to address that gap and uses survey data gathered during July 2008 from those affected by the May 12 Sichuan Earthquake, in China to understand the validity of such an approach. In addition, such a survey would create a “baseline” that other researchers and practitioners could reference in later recovery and reconstruction activities

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Organisational Resilience: Researching the reality of New Zealand Organisations

Erica Seville, Andre Dantas, Jason Le Masurier, John Vargo, David Brunsdon, Suzanne Wilkinson
Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Planning, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 258-266, April 2008.

 
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Abstract
Facilitated Process for Improving Organizational Resilience

Sonia McManus, Erica Seville, John Vargo, David Brunsdon
Natural Hazards Review, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp81-90 2008.

 
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Abstract

: Resilient organizations contribute significantly to resilient communities. However, the task of building more resilient organizations
is complicated by an inability to translate the concept of resilience into tangible working constructs for organizations. In addition,
resilience is often considered to be a crisis or emergency management issue. The link between creating resilient day-to-day operations and
having a resilient crisis response and recovery is typically not well understood by organizations. Resilience for organizations is found to
have three principal attributes. Situation awareness, management of keystone vulnerabilities, and adaptive capacity. A facilitated process
is introduced that assists organizations to enhance their performance in relation to these attributes. This process is called resilience
management and was developed and tested with 10 case study organizations selected specifically to represent a wide range of industry
sectors, business types, and sizes in New Zealand. Some of the preliminary resilience issues to arise from this study are also briefly
discussed

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Organisational Resilience in New Zealand

Sonia McManus , University of Canterbury, PhD thesis 2008

 
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Abstract

Organisations maintain our economy; they provide jobs, goods, services and a sense of community. The increasingly globalised nature of the modern world has lead to organisations facing threats that often are not recognise until the threat becomes a crisis. It is impossible for organisations, regardless of size, location or financial strength, to identify all possible hazards and their consequences; let alone plan for them. Therefore, the concept of increasing organisational resilience is gaining momentum. However, the term resilience has been used with abandon across a wide range of academic disciplines and in a great many situations. There is little consensus regarding what resilience is, what it means for organisations and, more importantly, how they may achieve greater resilience in the face of increasing threats. This study investigates 10 organisations from a range of industry sectors, sizes, localities and types within the New Zealand context to discover what are the common issues that foster or create barriers to increased resilience. Organisational resilience is defined in this study as a function of the overall situation awareness, keystone vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity of an organisation in a complex, dynamic and interrelated environment. A multiple case-study method has been used, and a facilitated 5-Step process for assessing and increasing resilience has been developed in conjunction with these organisations. Data was collected in the form of interviews, survey and participant observations in workshop environments. A set of 15 resilience indicators have been identified, and the organisations have been ranked according to their overall resilience relative to the other organisations in this study. Future work is likely to include further quantification of the methodology and the resilience indicators, resilience maturity models and work on understanding resilient leadership, communication of resilience concepts and international case studies to further determine the range of resilience for organisations.

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The Building Act and reconstruction programmes in New Zealand: Matters arising

Rotimi, J.O.B., Wilkinson, S., Myburgh, D. and Zuo, K. 
Building Abroad Conference on procurement of construction and reconstruction projects in the international context.
Organised by the IF Research Group, Universite de Montreal, Canada. 23-25 October 2008.  Pp. 373-383.

 
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Abstract

The study is an on-going research initiative to determine the effects that the
implementation of the Building Act 2004 will have on post-disaster reconstruction
programmes in New Zealand. Particularly in large-scale disaster events with
sudden-onsets the provisions of this Act and other legislative provisions need to
be supportive and enabling so as to facilitate speedy reconstruction and
reinstatements.
An on-line survey of building control officers and other disaster practitioners in
New Zealand was undertaken and their responses to issues connected with
application of the Building Act 2004 are analysed quantitatively.
The results indicate that there remain challenges to meeting reconstruction
objectives both efficiently and effectively under the new Building Act regime.
Prevalent amongst the matters raised were those of procedural constraints as a
result of high consenting standards and other logistic considerations.
Considerable attention is required to implement the Building Act and other
legislation during the two overlapping phases of response and recovery. The
desire is to create the best possible conditions that will encourage rapid rebuilding
of lives and communities after large-scale disasters in New Zealand.

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Post Disaster Reconstruction Research: An Industry Update

Dean Myburgh , Suzanne Wilkinson, Erica Seville 
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2008/01. (PDF, 300kB)

 
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Executive Summary

This report reviews the key learnings and application possibilities of research completed as part of the Resilient Organisations Objective 3 (Legal and Contractual Frameworks for PostDisaster Reconstruction) Programme over the past three years. Where appropriate, comments have been made regarding pre-disaster planning considerations. Alternatives that need to be incorporated into the thinking and planning of those who are involved in post disaster reconstruction have been highlighted. Several areas have also been identified that require further research or additional planning for a smoother, co-ordinated process of reconstruction.

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Summary of Learnings from the 4th International i-Rec Conference: Building resilience - achieving effective post-disaster reconstruction

Dean Myburgh , Erica Seville, Suzanne Wilkinson 
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2008/02. (PDF, 300kB)

 
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Abstract

In April 2008, the Resilient Organisations Research Programme hosted the 4th International i-Rec conference on post-disaster reconstruction in Christchurch, New Zealand. Papers presented at the Conference were wide-ranging, covering a number of topical issues for postdisaster reconstruction from around the world. This report provides a high level summary of some of the learning’s that emerged during the conference, and the lessons that may be taken from the experience of those who work at the forefront of post-disaster recovery and reconstruction efforts, as well as those who have researched relevant post-disaster reconstruction issues.

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Proceedings of a Workshop on Emergency Management and Social Science Disaster Research in New Zealand

Bruce Glavovic, Kathryn Jones, David Johnston (editors)
Te Papa, Wellington, 6th December 2007 

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Abstract

The past decade has seen substantial growth in social/behavioural hazard research in New Zealand and the wider Australasian region. With an increased focus on
sustainability and community resilience, there is a compelling need to deepen and
extend our knowledge of and understanding about the social science dimension of
disasters. Future research would benefit from the alignment of strategic directions and focus, as gaps, overlaps and missed opportunities exist. Much can be gained by a more deliberate effort to share information and improve coordination within the field of social science disaster research, as well as between researchers, policy-makers and emergency management practitioners. To meet this need and explore this issue, representatives from government, social science researchers, funders and practitioners participated in a workshop held on 6 December 2007 at Te Papa in Wellington.

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Resilience Management: A framework for assessing and improving the resilience of Organisations

Sonia McManus, Erica Seville, David Brunsdon, John Vargo
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2007/01. (PDF, 1MB) 

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Executive Summary

There is an intrinsic relationship between organisational resilience and improving the resilience of communities. Enabling the continued operation of organisations, in and following crises, significantly impacts on the medium to long term recovery and health of the wider community. Increased resilience is also important when considering the interconnectedness of modern organisations, where disruptions can have significant and widespread impacts globally. There is increasing demand for organisations to exhibit high reliability in the face of adversity; decision makers must address not only the crises that they know will happen, but also those that they cannot foresee. The term resilience has been used freely across a wide range of academic disciplines and in many different contexts. There is little consensus regarding what resilience is, what it means for organisations and, more importantly, how organisations might achieve greater resilience in the face of increasing threats. This study offers a definition of resilience that is applicable to organisations.

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Information Sharing During Emergency Response and Recovery: A framework for road organizations

Andre Dantas, Erica Seville, Dharmista Gohil 
Transportation Research Record, Volume 2022/2007, pg 22-28.

 
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Abstract

Road organizations are involved in a wide range of emergency response
and recovery activities. Information sharing is a critical element in deploying
road organization resources during such activities. This paper presents
an information-sharing framework for road organizations. On the basis
of a study of response and recovery activities, information needs were identified
and a geographic information system–based information-sharing
framework was created. The framework is applied to a desktop case study
in the South Island of New Zealand to establish the magnitude of potential
benefits. Results indicate that a reduction in time and cost of emergency
response activities could be achieved if the conceptual framework was
implemented through reduced response times, faster access to relevant
information, and therefore enhanced decision making

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Resource Availability for Roading Reconstruction: A Wellington Earthquake Scenario

Bhesram Singh, University of Auckland, Master's thesis 2007

 
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Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the availability of resources for post-disaster reconstruction of the Wellington State Highways. The methodology used in the research was a combination of literature review, three workshops/conferences and 15 interviews. A benchmark of the resources required for reinstatement of the state highways was also established via a resource estimation method uniquely designed to integrate the level of damage to the state highway. The results indicated that post-disaster reconstruction of the Wellington state highway is likely to be constrained by the limitations on seven key (construction) resources in New Zealand: aggregates, reinforcing bars and merchant steel products; cement and concrete; fuel; asphalt pavers; human resources and funding for state highway reconstruction. But availability of resources will influenced by five factors under the constraints of a significant disaster which includes prioritisation of works, ability to pool resources, lead times of procurement, existing contractual relationships and transportation into and around the disaster zone.

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Organisational Issues in Implementing an Information Sharing Framework: Lessons from the Matata flooding events in New Zealand

André Dantas and Erica Seville (nee Dalziell)
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 14.1 (2006): 38-52. 

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Abstract

This paper presents a critical review and analysis of issues in implementing
electronic data and information sharing frameworks for organisations involved in response activities during disaster. An implementation focused approach is used to understand end-user needs and develop tools that meet their operational requirements. A case study of New Zealand roading organisations examines how information is currently shared both within and between organisations to support crisis decision-making, and the potential benefits and implications of enhanced data and information sharing frameworks. Preliminary results show that considerable performance gains in response activities during disasters can be achieved provided technology is designed to work with and enhance existing operating structures.

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*International Reconstruction Experience: Study Tours to USA and Japan

Jason Le Masurier
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2006/01. (PDF, 224kB)

 
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Abstract

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Barriers to Post Disaster Reconstruction: Report on Workshop

Jason Le Masurier, Suzanne Wilkinson
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2006/03. (PDF, 176K)

 
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Introduction

A workshop was held to identify the challenges and barriers to post-disaster reconstruction in New Zealand to help guide research under Objective 3 of the Resilient Organisations project. The workshop brought together people with relevant experience in post-disaster reconstruction and/or specialist knowledge of the regulatory, legislative and contractual issues that could influence reconstruction. A list of attendees is given in Appendix A. This report summarises the key issues from the workshop and develops these issues into research directions. On the basis of both student and funding resources available, the report identifies the research that will be carried out as part of the current FRST funded research project. Other research from the priority list could potentially be carried out in the future if further research resources become available.

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Information Sharing During Disasters: Can we do it better?

Andre Dantas, Erica Seville and Alan Nicholson
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2006/02. (PDF, 1.7 Mb) 

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Executive Summary

This report presents a critical review and analysis of issues involved in implementing electronic data and information sharing frameworks for organisations involved in emergency response and recovery activities. Response to major emergencies involves multiple organisations collecting, collating and communicating data and information to enable better decision making that minimises social and economic impacts. The challenges involved in co-ordinating an effective response to large scale events are compounded by the number and variety of organisations involved. These complexities emphasise the need to develop robust yet simple frameworks for sharing information and communicating decisions within and between organisations involved in response and recovery activities. This report specifically focuses on organisations involved in response and recovery activities for the State Highway network during times of emergency, and how information sharing between these organisations might be streamlined to improve the effectiveness of that response and recovery. The first section of the report reviews the New Zealand emergency management context, and those organisations involved in emergency response for the State Highway network in particular. The report then describes a case study emergency event in Matata, where the interactions between organisations involved in restoring the road network were observed to better understand how response and recovery decisions are made, and the realities of information sharing during crisis. The report then reviews opportunities for improving communications and proposes a new framework for data and information sharing within and between organisations involved in response and recovery for the State Highway network. The framework proposed utilises Transit NZ’s current inventory database (RAMM) to generate a Dynamic Geographical Information System (DGIS) for emergency response. A Dynamic GIS differs from a traditional GIS system in that it has the capability to incorporate, display and share information continuously. The report also discusses challenges to implementing such a framework and the potential implications for organisations involved. In particular it highlights that there are significant challenges to encouraging enhanced communication and data/information sharing, particularly given that most communications interoperability issues are not technical in nature. Organisational cultures, differences in terminologies, and incompatibility of standard operating procedures all create barriers for progress. However, perceived barriers can be reduced if technology is employed according to an organisation’s needs rather than the other way around. During design of the proposed DGIS framework significant focus was placed on the nature and background of involved organisations; the characteristics of their involvement in response and recovery activities; their data/information needs; their data/information sharing needs; and how organisations could/should share data and information. It is hoped that by involving end-users during all development stages of the electronic data and information sharing framework, that researchers and end-users together, can develop an effective framework that complements the organisational structures, cultures and existing interfaces between the organisations involved.

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Building Organisational Resilience: A summary of key research findings

Erica Seville, David Brunsdon, Andre Dantas, Jason Le Masurier, Suzanne Wilkinson, John Vargo
Resilient Organisations Research Report 2006/04. (PDF, 168K)

 
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Abstract

This paper presents findings from a six-year research programme underway in New Zealand to develop strategies for improving the resilience of organisations to major crisis events. The research takes a systems view of organisations, recognising that there are multiple interdependencies within and between different organisations that influence their abilities to respond and recover. This means that effective resilience management for any one organisation must look beyond that single organisation and consider the resilience of other organisations that it depends on. Particular aspects of organisational resilience focused on by the research team include: how individual organisations are positioned to respond and recover from major crises; their ability to communicate and share information in order to direct resources effectively during crises; and the legal and contractual frameworks within which they will need to operate during crisis response and recovery. None of these issues can be resolved by a single organisation acting unilaterally. Organisations are required to work together towards system resilience.

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*Survey of Impacts on the Andaman Coast, Southern Thailand following the Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Tsunami of December 26, 2004

Robert Bell, Hugh Cowan, Erica Dalziell, Noel Evans, Mike O’Leary, Bernie Rush, Lawrence Yule. (2005) Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, Vol 38, No.3, September 2005.
This paper can be downloaded for free at the NZSEE website

 
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Abstract

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*Resilience, Vulnerability, and Adaptive Capacity: Implications for System Performance

Dalziell, E.P., McManus, S.T. (2004) 
Implications for System Performance. 1st International Forum for Engineering Decision Making (IFED), Stoos, Switzerland: 5-8 Dec 2004. 

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Abstract

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The Development of a Contractual Framework for Disaster Reconstruction

Suzanne Wilkinson, Sunil Gupta, Jason Le Masurier.

 
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Abstract
Benchmarking Resilience: Organisational Resilience in the Australian Water Industry

John Vargo, Jessica Sullivan, David Parsons

 
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Overview

Under Sydney Water’s Climate Change Adaptation Program we set a goal to understanding our existing organisational, operational and cultural resilience to identify how well placed we currently are to deal with the impact of extreme event disruptions (bushfires, storms, floods, heatwaves etc) and our ability to “bounce back”. As part of this Sydney Water commissioned a set of benchmark case studies aimed at comparing our current level of organisational resilience and practice with other water utilities. The purpose of this project was to identify strengths and opportunities to improve our ability to adapt to future extreme climatic events that are likely to be more frequent and intense in the future and might compromise the organisation’s ability to deliver its core services.
The key objectives of this project were to:
• Benchmark Sydney Water’s ability to cope with natural events
• Identify areas of improvement and recommend targeted actions to increase resilience to future extreme events
• Inform Sydney Water’s strategic approach to managing and planning for extreme natural hazard risks. The utilities in this study were chosen based on their high reputation for resilience while covering a wide range of water company settings: large and small, urban and rural, with a range of ownership structures. They were also selected because they face a range of hazards, many with climate change implications. Table 1 provides a summary of the participating utilities.

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